CHAPTER I
Introduction



The Department of Ocean Development was created in July,1981 as a part of the Cabinet Secretariat directly under the charge of the Prime Minister. From March,1982 it became a separate Department. Department of Ocean Development has been functioning as a nodal Department for organizing, coordinating and promoting ocean development activities in the country, in line with the Ocean Policy Statement. The salient features of the Policy Statement relate to:

* Need to map living resources, prepare an inventory of commercially exploitable fauna and to map and assess the availability of mineral resources from the deep sea.

* Optimum utilization of living resources and sea weeds, exploitation of non- living resources such as hydrocarbons and heavy placer deposits, harnessing of renewable resources of ocean energy from the waves, temperature difference in water column, etc.

* Technological advances geared to the utilization and preservation of the marine environment.

* Research and development in basic ocean sciences.

* Development of indigenous technology and setting up of infrastructure facilities and services to operate large sized fishing vessels.

* Development of technologies relating to instrumentation, diving systems, position fixing, materials development, oceanic data collecting devices, submersible etc.

* Broadening and strengthening of available infrastructure facilities.

* Establishment of a centralized data system with appropriate mechanism for collection, collation and dissemination of ocean related information both from indigenous and foreign sources.

* Training of skilled manpower and creation of self-reliant technological base.

* Establishment of an integrated legal framework and commitment for its enforcement.

* Cooperation with both developed and developing countries.

* The Department of Ocean Development functions in association with other concerned agencies.

The major thrust areas of development pursued by the Department over the years relate to:

* Development of technologies relating to seabed mining, extractive metallurgy.

* Contribution towards front ranking research in polar sciences.

* Exploration of marine resources and their correlation with oceanographic parameters, studies to evolve exploration parameters and strategies.

* Development of technologies and infrastructure for exploration and sustainable utilization of marine living and non-living resources.

* Developmental activities related to ocean integrated coastal and marine area management, coastal community development, ocean information services, etc., with direct application to the welfare of the society.

* Basic research in Ocean Science and Technology, Human Resource Development, creation of Centres of Excellence in academic institutions and public awareness on the potential and uses of ocean.

The underlying philosophy of the programmes and activities undertaken by the Department of Ocean Development is one of sustainable and environment friendly exploration and utilization of marine living and non-living resources for the socio-economic benefit of the country.

Organizational Set-Up of the Department

The present sanctioned strength of the Department including administrative, technical and supporting staff is 181 in all grades, attached offices included.The Department has two attached offices viz. Sagar Sampada Cell, Kochi since renamed as 'Centre for Marine Living Resources and Ecology (CMLRE)' and Project Directorate for Integrated Coastal and Marine Area Management (ICMAM), Chennai. Department has also three autonomous societies under its administrative control viz. National Institute of Ocean Technology, Chennai, National Centre for Antarctic and Ocean Research, Goa and Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services, Hyderabad.

The Sagar Sampada Cell (SSC), set up in 1989 at Kochi has been renamed as Centre for Marine Living Resources and Ecology (CMLRE) taking into consideration the functional responsibilities of the office viz.; management of the Fishery Oceanographic Research Vessel (FORV) Sagar Sampada, co-ordination of the national programme on marine living resources, inventorying of marine bio resources and co-ordination of the Indian activities of the Commission for Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR).

The National Institute of Ocean Technology (NIOT), Chennai, a registered society under the administrative control of and funded by the Department, functions as a technical arm for development of ocean related technology. During 1998-99, the Antarctic Study Centre (ASC) at Goa, which was an attached office, was converted into an autonomous society w.e.f. September 1998, which was renamed as National Centre for Antarctic & Ocean Research (NCAOR) during May, 1999. Another autonomous society viz. Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services (INCOIS) was set up with its head quarters at Hyderabad in February 1999. In addition, a Project Directorate for Integrated Coastal and Marine Area Management (ICMAM) was set up during 1997-98 at Chennai. The activities of the project include:

i. Development of GIS based information system for critical habitats in the Coastal and Marine Areas in India

ii. Determination of Waste Assimilation Capacity at selected estuaries along coastal areas of India

iii. Development of Guidelines for Environmental Impact Assessment for Marine and Coastal Developmental Activities and Process

iv. Preparation of Model Integrated Coastal and Marine Area Management Plans

Major Programmes of the Department

The programmes of the Department which have been reoriented and revamped during the 9th Five Year Plan period cover:-

i) Polar (Antarctic) Science
ii) Marine Living Resources
iii) Marine Non-Living Resources
iv) Marine and Coastal Area Management
v) Ocean Observation & Information Services
vi) Marine Research and Capacity Building
vii) Coastal Community Programmes
viii) Ocean Awareness, and
ix) International Cooperation

While formulating the research and development programmes, stress is laid on accelerated development of applied technology and the benefits these will give to society.

Intensive review and evaluation of the Antarctic research programme had led to revised priorities in scientific programmes taking into consideration the increasing importance and the relevance of Antarctic research in understanding the global change and environment.

In the Polymetallic Nodules Programme, emphasis so far had been on the utilization of the technologies in the survey and exploration and mining for immediate use in the Exclusive Economic Zone. However, in the recent years, the programme has been expanded to include development of technologies for deep sea mining, recovery of metals, etc.

Priority is also being accorded to integrated coastal and marine area management, ocean observation and information services including use of satellite remote sensing for exploration and sustainable utilization of the living and non-living resources, pollution monitoring, sea level variations, etc., collection and dissemination of oceanographic and meteorological data on real-time basis, development of technologies for tapping ocean energy, coastal and environmental engineering, marine instrumentation, enhancement of marine living resources and coastal community programmes. Continued support is being provided to Universities and R&D Institutions for conducting basic and applied research in various disciplines related to ocean sciences and technology and establishment of Ocean Science and Technology Cells.

India was elected Chairman of the Commission for Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) for a two-year term from November, '98. India is a Member of the Antarctic Treaty System with a consultative status, Council of Managers of the National Antarctic Programme, Standing Committee on Antarctic Logistics and Operations, Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research and in the Council of International Seabed Authority under Investors category for survey/exploration and exploitation of polymetallic nodules from the Central Indian Ocean. India's nominees are also working as elected members in various important institutions established under the UN Convention on Law of the Sea such as: International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, Council of the International Seabed Authority (ISBA), Legal and Technical Commission of the Council of the Authority, Finance Committee of ISBA, Commission on the Limits of Continental Shelf, etc. India also is actively taking part in the Inter- Governmental Oceanographic Commission, Regional Seas Programme, etc.

Delineation of Outer Limits of Continental Shelf

In accordance with Article 76 of United Nations Convention on Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), claims of the delineation of the outer limits of the continental shelf are required to be submitted within 10 years of coming into force of the Convention for the country concerned. Since India ratified the convention in June 1995, the claims are required to be submitted to UNCLOS by June 2005. The claims will be based on the hydrographic survey data. India is likely to gain an additional area of about 1 to 1.5 million sq. km outside the Exclusive Economic Zone, where the inherent rights of India can be duly exercised. The basic components of the proposed programme are the baseline survey, bathymetric survey, seismic survey and data processing. A comprehensive programme for this purpose has already been approved by the government, involving an outlay of Rs. 47.46 crore . The claim will be submitted to UNCLOS by the end of 2001.

CHAPTER II
Review of Overall Performance during 1999-2000



2.1 POLAR SCIENCES

For the first time the XIX Indian expedition to the icy continent was launched from Cape Town, South Africa in preference to launching previously from Goa. This has benefited both scientifically and logistically, in addition to financial savings on the operational costs pertaining to ship chartering.

The XIX expedition, which was launched on 9th December 1999, had total team strength of 48 personnel drawn from 20 national institutions. A historic feat was accomplished by the presence of the first ever Indian woman wintering at Maitri station as a medical officer of the expedition. The team also included a lady geologist from Peru. The major scientific objectives accomplished during this expedition encompassed a wide spectrum of pure and applied sciences in the fields of Atmospheric, Geological, Biological, Environmental, Medical, Engineering & Communication Sciences. In addition to the ongoing programs in Antarctica, several new projects on palyno-stratigraphic studies, environmental monitoring, bio-ecological studies, psycho-physiological investigations and the application of non-conventional energy sources were successfully initiated. Another major achievement of this mission was the charting of a reconnaissance land route to the polar plateau region beyond the Wholthat Mountains, 200 km south of Maitri station.

The summer team after accomplishing its tasks returned to Cape Town on 3 March 2000, leaving behind the winter team of 25 members. During the winter period, eight permanent observatories in different areas of polar science continuously recorded and provided valuable scientific data from Maitri station.

National Centre for Antarctic and Ocean Research (NCAOR), Goa

The Centre hosted the XI meeting of the Council of Managers of National Antarctic Program (COMNAP) and Standing Committee on Antarctic Logistics and Operations (SCALOP) along with a workshop on EIA of Antarctica between 19th and 24 September 1999. The meeting was attended by 85 delegates from 25 Antarctic Treaty nations including India. The SCAR Executive Committee also met concurrently at Goa during this period. Bilateral cooperations in Antarctic science & logistics were initiated or negotiated with several Treaty nations like Germany, South Africa, Italy, France, Russia, South Korea and Peru.

As a part of its on-going efforts to augment its administrative and support wings, NCAOR during the year filled up 14 notified posts in different streams, including two technical positions.

2.2 Delineation of Outer Limits of Continental Shelf

NCAOR, as the nodal agency responsible for the execution of this Project on behalf of the Department, finalized the strategy and the technical specifications for the proposed marine surveys, in consultation with the Standing Committee on Seismic Surveys constituted by the DOD. A Global Tender was floated inviting bids for undertaking the surveys. A scientist from NCAOR was deputed to UK for a course study on the subject.

2.3 Marine Living Resources

Assessment of Marine Living resources

The environment and productivity group collected data from the Arabian sea in the inter monsoon season (March to May) of 1999 and 2000, from the South-East coast during the summer monsoon (June - mid October) and from the east coast and the Andaman Sea during the winter monsoon (Mid October - February) period. The data were analysed to estimate the physical, chemical, environmental, biological and productivity parameters. The said areas were also covered by the MLR group on Deep Scattering Layer (DSL) with a view to detect DSL using echograms and collection of DSL samples by Isaac Kid Midwater Trawl (IKMT). IKMT samples were analysed and sorted out to group/species levels with respect to major planktonic and nektonic forms separately for day/night collections. Water samples were also collected from these areas to investigate the occurrence of toxic algae. The MLR group on "Studies of the Deep Sea Fishes along the continental slope of the Indian EEZ" surveyed the resources availability of demersal fishes in the slope area by hydro acoustic techniques and bottom trawling operations. The slope areas of the west and east coast were surveyed during the summer monsoon and winter monsoon period respectively. Good grounds for deep sea shrimps and lobsters were located in the slope area of both the coasts. Sediments samples for benthic studies were collected from 45 stations along the west coast during October 1999 using McIntyre grab. Group wise sorting of the samples has been completed.

Drugs from the Sea

The performance under this programme during 1999-2000 includes:-

* Collection and identification of 250 new marine flora and fauna for chemical extraction and bio- evaluation.

* Continuation of the process of Biological evaluation of 5 organisms possessing anti- viral, anti diabetic, anti-diarrhoeal, anti-cholesterol, anti anxiolytic and larvicidal activities.

* Regulatory pharmacology and toxicology of the anti- diabetic and anti- diarrhoeal lead was initiated.

An expenditure of Rs 1.63 crores was incurred.

2.4 Marine Non-living Resources (Polymetallic Nodules Programme )

Survey & Exploration

Spot sampling at closer grid of 5 km was commissioned. Total 26 stations were covered. The trends for higher abundance and validation of the block-wise estimation was carried out on the basis of analysis of the samples. The updating of geo-statistical resource evaluation based on 12.5 km. grid sampling in selected blocks was commissioned.

EIA Study

In order to assess the environmental impact of large scale deep seabed mining activity, EIA study was initiated in collaboration with Russian experts. Impact of simulated mining conditions was studied by disturbing the seabed by a special disturber from onboard a chartered vessel. Pre and post disturbance environmental data was collected and analyzed. Monitoring of the biological, geological, chemical and physical parameters in the test site of benthic disturbance would be continued to assess long term impact. The benthic disturbance report on the basis of samplers/data collected with the specialized vessel was prepared.

Remotely operated Vehicle (ROV)

The data generated by deploying the upgraded version of ROV which was successfully demonstrated off Madras coast at a depth of 40 m by CMERI were analyzed for facilitating testing at 250 m.

Technology Development (Mining)

* Under the joint collaborative programme between NIOT, Chennai and IKS, University of Siegen, Germany, an integrated mining system was successfully launched up to a depth of 60 m as the first step for demonstration of the system up to a depth of 500 m off Malvan coast.

* Preparation of detailed technical report on the basis of the data collected during the demonstration activities was initiated. The report will comprise description, design and drawings (excluding fabrication drawings), specification and definition of all hard wares required to realise a manganese nodules mining system along with infrastructure and facilities necessary for assembly, integration, testing for performance evaluation.

* An MoU between Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) and DOD was signed. As a follow-up, a collaborative programme with RAS and NIOT, Chennai for design, development and testing of unmanned submersible up to a depth of 6000 m. was formulated.

Technology Development (Extractive Metallurgy)

RRL (B) demonstrated a campaign to validate the flow-sheet for extractive metallurgy. The data generated during the campaign was handed over to M/s. EIL as the input to the basic engineering design for 500 kg./day capacity semi- continuous demonstration plant.

BARC demonstrated the downstream part of the flow sheet by using actual leach liquor (nickel-cobalt sulphate) received from RRL(B). The data generated during the campaign was made available to M/s. EIL. The data would form the basis for design and development of 500 kg./day semi-continuous demonstration plant.

2.5 Marine and Coastal Area Management

Coastal Ocean Monitoring & Prediction Systems (COMAPS) Programme

The Coastal Ocean Monitoring and Prediction System (COMAPS) programme is being implemented since the year 1990-91. The investigations are being made by 11 institutions at about 82 locations in the 0 - 25 km transects from the coast to the sea. The data collected so far has indicated that in the sea off 2 km from the coast is clean, except in the case of Bombay, where the sea beyond 5 km is clean. The observations were continued during the year 1999-2000 and the results obtained have confirmed these earlier findings with isolated variations. These are:

a. Along the coast of Gujarat, the Alang, which is the ship-breaking yard, showed stress conditions with high levels of suspended solids and petroleum hydrocarbons in the water. The Dissolved Oxygen (DO) values near the coast of Porbandar (less than 2 km) continued to be lower, due to the discharge of effluents from the nearby industries. Further, the Veraval harbour, which was listed as area of concern, continued to remain with the deteriorated water quality with low to nil levels of oxygen during the low tide period.

b. Along the coast of Maharashtra, Thane, Versova and Mahim creeks indicated no improvement in the environment quality and the observations of low to nil levels of oxygen during the low tide period was similar to that of previous years. The concentration of heavy metals like copper and mercury was reported to be high in Ulhas estuary.

c. Along the coast of Karnataka, the waters close to Mangalore continued to show high levels of heterotrophic bacteria, particularly streptococcus faecal and coliforms, due to discharge of untreated domestic wastes.

d. Along the cost of Kerala, the Veli, which receives effluents from Trivandrum Titanium Plant, continued to exhibit high acidity with no flora and fauna present around the point of discharge of effluents. Neendakara also continued to exhibit relatively increased levels of petroleum hydrocarbons. The near shore waters of Paravur, Neendakara and Cochin had higher counts of Streptococcus faecali, due to discharge of municipal wastes.

e. Along the coast of Tamil Nadu, all the stations showed good levels of DO, except slightly lower levels of DO (about 15%) in the sea off Chennai Port.

f. Along the coast of Andhra Pradesh, the Visakhpatnam harbour and Kakinada canal continued to be concern. Due to influx of domestic sewage into the harbour, high levels of nutrients were noticed.

g. The Orissa and West Bengal coasts did not exhibit any signs of pollution. The near shore waters of Puri, which showed high levels of bacteria, due to direct disposal of municipal sewage, has shown increased concentration of DO and decreased ammonia, indicating the signs of recovery. This has been possible mainly, due to the treatment of wastes, which are being disposed of into the sea.

h. Andaman, Nicobar and Lakshadweep Islands continued to show clean water quality, except in the harbour waters of Port Blair, where slightly higher concentration of dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons was noticed.

Coastal Research Vessels

The Vessel Management Cell manages and operates coastal research vessels viz Sagar Purvi and Sagar Paschimi owned by the Department and manages vessel A.A.Sidorenko chartered on wet lease by DOD. The vessel Sagar Purvi has completed regular COMAPS monitoring by CECRI and NIO, Vizag and other oceanographic observations for IOM, Anna University and University of Madras. The vessel was used for microbiology observations for the waste load allocation project under ICMAM. The vessel was also used for survey for establishment of SPM for BPCL at Gopalpur.

The vessel Sagar Paschimi completed all her scheduled programs in April and May 99. The vessel was dry docked at Cochin Port Trust and the annual maintenance was completed during the monsoon lay up period. Later, the vessel completed COMAPS programs for five Institutions.

Both the vessels completed cruises and sampling stations as per Table-1. The names of institutions that used the vessels are given in Table-2.



The vessel A.A.Sidorenko has been taken over by VMC and undertook three voyages under PMN program. 32 tons of nodules have been collected during the first three voyages. A Multipurpose building for NIOT at Chennai Port Trust was completed.

Integrated Coastal and Marine Area Management (ICMAM)

a) The programme for collection of data in all the 11 sites was completed and draft GIS based information system developed for Pichavaram, Kadamat, Karwar and Gulf of Mannar.

b) Field studies required for Determination of Waste Assimilation Capacity were undertaken and 3 rounds of samples were collected for Ennore.

c) Development of draft EIA guidelines for Ports and harbours has been completed

d) The project on Development of ICMAM Plan was initiated after engagement of Consultants. The workshop for identifying key issues and problems for Goa and Gulf of Kachchh were also undertaken.

2.6 Ocean Observation and Information Services (OOIS)

With a view to synergise and generate reliable coastal and ocean data and data products for supporting coastal and off-shore developmental activities and oceanographic research, the reorganized and revamped Ocean Observation and Information Services (OOIS) was established in 1997-98. The programme consists of four major elements viz., Ocean Observing Systems, Ocean Information Services, Satellite and Coastal Oceanographic Research, and Ocean Modelling & Dynamics.

The major accomplishments under each of these four elements are summarised below:

Ocean Observing Systems

* Retrieval, archival, dissemination of the tidal data and maintenance of Float Type Digital Tide Gauges (FTDGs) and Acoustic Tide Gauges.

* Operation and maintenance of 12 data buoy network, generation, analysis of data and supply to operational agencies.

* Deployment of drifting buoys and data acquisition, processing, quality control and archival, Validation of SST retrieval algorithm, preparation of 10 day averaged 1 degx1 deg c surface velocity climatology.

* Initiation of procurement of components and fabrication of arrays, deployment of current arrays, procurement of XBT probes, analysis, interpretation and publishing of annual data.

* Procurement of special equipment, finalisation of annual validation campaigns, procurement of satellite data, collection of met-ocean data.

Ocean Information Services

* Continued generation of SST as in the previous year and experimental product generation.

* Continuation of generation and dissemination of PFZ forecasts.

* Establishment of Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services (INCOIS) at Hyderabad as a registered society under the department for executing the Ocean Information Services project.

* Receipt/retrieval of Ocean colour data from IRS-P4 and other foreign satellites, ocean colour sensor data.

* Derivation of the Ocean Colour data products like chlorophyll, suspended sediments and bathymetry.

* Generation and dissemination of integrated PFZ forecast by including various environmental parameters like chlorophyll, suspended sediments, nutrients etc.

* Supporting of Marine Data Centre's promoted by the Department at various national laboratories/institutions.

Satellite Coastal & Oceanographic Research (SATCORE)

* Continuation of R&I activities for upgradation of existing algorithms, initiation of the development of Version I software by using other algorithms and improved models. Packaging and customization of Version I software for retrieval of ocean parameters.

Ocean Dynamics and Modelling (INDOMOD)

* Development of process models for air-sea interaction and sub-grid processes.

* Test run of Ocean Global Circulation Model (OGCM) and validation.

* Formulation of flux schemes/simple atmospheric models for development of an Ocean Model and a hybrid coupled model for the Indian monsoon region.

* Development of data assimilation and forecasting system for horizontal and vertical structure of currents, temperature and salinity in the Indian seas and study of the effect of freshwater discharge from major river system on the circulation.

* Observation part of Land Ocean Interaction in the Coastal Zone (LOICZ) and processing of JGOFS Bay of Bengal proposal.

* Completion of field programme of the Indian JGOFS and integration of results.

2.7 Marine Research & Capacity Building & Manpower Training

11 ongoing projects received financial assistance. Also 5 new fellowships were approved during this year. A new project "Laboratory & field culture of edible seaweeds along Maharashtra coast and their product development for health & nutrition" was approved for C.I.F.E., Mumbai. The following projects were completed:

1. Conservation of seagrass ecosystem of the Gulf of Mannar Biosphere reserve - Monitoring seagrass ecosystem characteristics and experimental transplantation studies - Annamalai University

2. Coral and seagrass mortality in reefs: Microbial pathogens and environmental disturbances - NIO, Goa.

3. Microbial fouling: Isolation and characterisation of corrosion inhibiting polysaccharides from the corrosion products of metals and alloys immersed in marine waters - NIO, Goa

4. Hydrogeochemistry, thermal structure and sedimentology of Priyadarshani Lake, Schirmacher Oasis, Antarctica, I.I.T., Kanpur.

Under OSTC system, total of 41 projects were taken up for funding at 7 OSTCs in the area of Marine Ecology-West Coast (10 ), Marine Ecology-East Coast/Andaman Sea(4 projects), Marine Benthos (6 projects), Marine Biology (6 projects), Marine Microbiology (2 projects), Beach Placers (4 projects), Coastal Marine Culture Systems (4 projects) were approved to OSTC, Bhavnagar University during this year. About 80 ongoing fellowships received financial support.

2.8 Coastal Community Programmes

Island Development Programme

NIOT has taken up new initiatives towards helping island communities in their needs relating to Ocean Science and Technology as well as marine resource enhancement . The first activity taken up by NIOT is a programme on lobster resource enhancement for islands under the DOD project on Living Marine Resources Enhancement (LMRE).

The programme on lobster resource enhancement is already underway by utilizing the hatchery facility of Tamil Nadu Fisheries Development Corporation (TNFDC) available at Neelankarai, Chennai. Several experiments have already been carried out in the following areas:

a) Fattening of spiny lobster Panulirus homarus using different live feeds (mussels and clams)

b) Biochemical analysis of lobsters and live feeds

c) Water quality and disease management

d) Spawning and larval rearing, and

e) Survey of lobster resources in Gulf of Mannar and Andaman Islands.

In a study conducted on lobster fattening using gray clam as live feed, a remarkable increment in body weight (around 35 g/month) has been achieved. However, most of the animals were found to be losing body pigmentation. Another experiment was conducted using green mussel as a feed source in place of clam. The animals which lost pigmentation were fed with mussel meat and maintained in a dark environment. All the animals regained pigmentation and also underwent moulting faster than clam fed animals. Although the feeding rate was slightly higher for the clam fed animals, the gross conversion efficiency and food conversion ratio were found to be almost similar. Various biochemical analysis such as protein, free aminoacids, carbohydrates, free & bound sugars, protease, (-amylase and chitinase indicate the suitability of mussel meat as a better alternative to the clam as feed source for lobsters.

During the fattening of lobsters, various hydrobiological parameters such as temperature, pH, salinity, dissolved oxygen, nitrite, nitrate, silicate, ammonia and phosphate in the source water as well as the experimental tanks were estimated. The phytoplankton species present in the source water were also identified in order to utilize them as feed for larvae. The occurrence of various protozoans, total heterotrophic bacterial population and Vibrios load was observed in the body surface of lobster, live feeds and water (both from tanks and source). The animals with tail rot syndrome were successfully treated with appropriate concentration of malachite green and 100% recovery was observed in 20-22 days.

At the new campus of NIOT, R & D laboratories, which will cater to all the analytical requirements of the LMRE project, have been organised. All major and minor equipment are commissioned and the laboratory is fully operational now.

A survey on landing of lobsters at various sites in Gulf of Mannar and Andaman islands has been completed by December 1999. It indicates a decline in landings at various sites, a trend which was in evidence from previous surveys of lobster resources during the last few years.

The activities of erstwhile Andaman Nicobar Centre for Ocean Development (ANCOD) of Department of Ocean Development has been integrated with NIOT as Andaman and Nicobar Centre for Ocean Science and Technology (ANCOST) in order to implement the various core activities previously initiated under the LMRE programme. For this purpose, already existing facilities like boats and sea water pumps have been repaired and commissioned. A layout of new laboratory building has been finalised and the building is expected to be functional very soon. Using the farm facility in Minnie Bay, the problems associated with the culture of lobster and sea ranching of its early life stages are being examined.

Ocean Awareness

With a view to promote awareness among the public and school children, participation in the exhibition and fairs was extended. DOD participated in the India International Trade Fair during November, 1999 and bagged silver medal for best display amongst the Govt. of India Ministries/ Departments. DOD also participated in Swadeshi Vigyan Mela held in IIT New Delhi during January- February, 2000. Financial support was extended to a number of seminars/ symposias/ workshops etc.

2.9 International Co-operation

During the year 1999-2000 contributions were made to International Commissions and organizations like UNCLOS, ISBA, COMNAP/ SCALOP, CCAMLR. Regional Seas Programme etc. The 11th meeting of COMNAP/ SCALOP was held at Goa during September 1999. India effectively participated in the IOC Executive Council and other meetings of IOC, IOCINDO, International Sea bed Authority, 7th UN Commission on Sustainable Development, XXIII Antarctic Treaty System (ATS) 2nd meeting of Environmental Protection of ATS, Commission for Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources etc.

International Cooperation: Contribution and Participation at CCAMLR

India continued to contribute to the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR). India effectively participated at the meetings of the Working Group on Ecosystem Monitoring and Management (WG- EMM). India also chaired the CCAMLR-XVIII and participated in the deliberations therein.

Delineation of Outer Limits of Continental Shelf

The baseline survey for the Indian coastline was completed by National Hydrographic Office.

Determination of Foot of Slope (FOS)

An exercise was undertaken to find out the indicative foot of the slope off east coast as well as west coast. The foot of the slope was reconciled by Geological Survey of India and National Hydrographic Office. Separate cruises were undertaken to acquire the bathymetric data in Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal to estimate foot of the slope accurately.

Thickness of the Sedimentary Rocks

A tender was called to undertake seismic survey in Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal after taking into consideration the Scientific and Technical Guidelines of the Commission on the Limits of Continental Shelf. Rs.3.98 crores were released in 1999-2000, out of the total requirement of Rs. 47.46 crores.

2.10 National Institute of Ocean Technology (NIOT)

NIOT's activities are in the areas of Ocean Energy, Deep sea mining, Coastal and Environmental Engineering and Marine Instrumentation. Two pioneering projects are in the area of mining technology demonstration and design and installation of 1 MW floating OTEC pilot plant. A new activity which has been added to NIOT is the provision of science and technology inputs for the Island communities. Other operational programmes handled by NIOT are National Data Buoy Programme (NDBP) and Operation and Management of Coastal Research Vessels owned by DOD and of AA Sidorenko.

Mission - I : Ocean Energy

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC)

The major programme of the group is the Design, Installation, Commissioning and Demonstration of the 1 MW (Gross) floating OTEC plant. This plant working on the closed cycle principle with ammonia as the working fluid will be installed on a barge that is moored in a manner such that the 1m High Density Poly Ethylene (HDPE) pipe forms a part of the mooring. The detailed design of the power module has been completed. It consists of four titanium evaporators and four titanium condensers, a four stage axial turbine and pumps for operation of ammonia, cold and warm seawater circuits.

The titanium plate heat exchangers are the largest of its kind in the world. The Turbine is being manufactured indigenously and the design has been reviewed by an Expert Committee constituted by NIOT. The cold water pipe, which is of 1 m diameter and is made of HDPE will be towed horizontally to the OTEC site and appended for connection to the barge. In order to understand the issues associated with the power module of the OTEC plant, especially under off design conditions NIOT has also constructed a 1 MW demonstration OTEC plant, which consists of a warm water source, chiller, which serves as the cold water source and also has plate heat exchangers for evaporator and condenser.

Wave Energy

The work on the fixed guide vane impulse turbine at the National Test Facility at Vizhinjam was completed. The hydrodynamic efficiency of the Backward Bent Ducted Buoy (BBDB) was measured in the wave energy basin at IIT Chennai.

Mission II - Deep Sea Technology and Ocean Mining

Development of technology for deep-sea mining of polymetallic nodules is one of the main activities of this mission. A joint collaborative programme has been initiated with Institut fr Konstruktion (IKS), University of Siegen, Germany to develop a crawler based flexible riser - positive displacement pumping concept for deep sea mining. In the first phase, an underwater crawler developed at IKS has been refurbished with a manipulator, cutter, slurry pump, hydraulics, electrical, instrumentation and control systems for sand mining operation at 500 m water depth.

The crawler has been designed to work on a soft sea bed and has a special track belt made of rubber with involute teeth to compact the bed during motion. The manipulator arm sweeps the seabed and mines sand and a positive displacement pump delivers the sand slurry to the mother ship through a flexible hose. The system has been tested for locomotion, pumping etc. on land. The launching and retrieval tests for the sand mining system were held off Goa coast at 50 m water depth in October 98. After the tests a new hose winch and a new Field Installable Termination Assembly (FITA) were designed and developed by NIOT for the system. The system was launched upto 140 metres depth off Tuticorin coast in April 1999. Based on the tests and experience obtained therein, additonal modifications in the system have been incorporated at IKS and at NIOT, Chennai. Sand mining test at a depth of 410 m was done off Tuticorin Coast during March 2000. Detailed design report of a mining system for mining manganese nodule was prepared by the Joint NIOT-IKS team. The same was reviewed by the Review Committee and submitted to the Department.

Under this mission an underwater thruster is being developed for operation at 1000 metre depth. The project involves multi-institutional participation by PSG College of Technology and CMERI, Durgapur. The thruster has been manufactured and testing will be taken up shortly. In addition, prototypes of underwater electrical connectors have been designed and manufactured for 1000 metre operation and have been successfully tested at NIOT.

A novel jet pump with a non-axisymmetric suction has been developed suitable for handling large solid particles. The pump has been tested in an experimental set up (50 mm diameter pipeline) at IIT Chennai for four jet nozzles (8.8 mm - 17.5 mm diameter) using gravel (3mm-10 mm size) for a maximum delivered concentration of 25% by weight. In the next phase the pump will be tested in a pilot plant that is being developed (200 mm diameter pipeline and 125 tonnes per hour capacity) using gravel (maximum size: 30mm). Efforts to patent this novel design are in progress.

Mission - III: Coastal and Environmental Engineering.

The major activities in the year were in-house modelling of coastal inundation due to storm surges and industry oriented consultancy services for coastal projects. Available numerical models for various coastal processes like MIKE-21 and MIKE-3 are applied to Indian coastal environment conditions for providing typical solutions to industry. Also, NIOT is executing the ICMAM components on Waste Load Allocation (WLA) and Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA).

Forecasting Models for Coastal Natural Disasters

NIOT has developed a finite element surge simulation model and it has been benchmarked with MIKE-21. The model has been calibrated with data on previous cyclones. Estimation of inundation is interpolated into the finite element model. This model is being applied to estimate inundation of Andhra coast during cyclone crossing.

Further, NIOT in collaboration with international consultants like Babtie International and Delft Hydraulics has undertaken a technical study towards Andra Pradesh Hazard Mitigation and Emergency Cyclone Recovery project. The main objective of the project is to achieve sustained and effective wind, rainfall & storm surge forecasting for the AP Coastal region so as to reduce the loss of property. Experts of NIOT prepared a report on the existing surge simulation models in India and this formed the basis for evaluation of the existing models. Under this project, the mission also involves watershed and delta management including flood modeling in the cyclone prone areas.

Waste Load Allocation (WLA) & Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)

The two projects executed by NIOT under the ICMAM project, are proceeding on schedule and have been reviewed by World Bank during the Mid Term Review. The WLA project for Ennore has completed the three monitoring surveys and field experiments. Modeling has been initiated. The EIA guideline for Ports & Harbours has been reviewed by national experts and the preparation of final guidelines is under progress.

Under the physical oceanographic component of COMAPS the first phase of sampling at Paradip, Visakhapatnam, Mangalore was completed.

Consultancy Services for Development of Marine Facilities

NIOT completed the Seabed Engineering and Oceanographic surveys off Pettodai-Periyakuppam area near Cuddalore for development of Single Point Mooring off Cuddalore and Gopalpur. These investigations include collection and analysis of bathymetric data, seabed morphology, sub seabed geology and shallow sampling of project area. Current and wave measurements were also made during monsoon periods.

Geophysical and geotechnical surveys which were taken up by NIOT for the Pipavav Gas Pipeline Project across the Gulf of Khambat, awarded to NIOT by M/S British Gas Private Limited during November, 1999 were completed and final report submitted. This work involved bathymetric survey using single beam and multi-beam sonar, Side scan sonar survey, sub-bottom profiling of sea bed, magnetometer survey and interpretation of geotechnical and geophysical parameters within the proposed pipeline corridors. This project also included landfall survey consisting of topographical survey, geophysical survey, soil resistivity survey, geotechnical survey, onshore position control and seismic study. Geotechnical survey included grab sampling, vibrocoring, rock coring and cone penetrometer, in-situ measurement, etc. This is perhaps the largesse marine survey conducted by an Indian agency.

National Thermal Power Corporation had requested NIOT to study and recommend appropriate and cost effective coal transport logistics for their proposed 1000 MW power plant at Cheyyur, south of Madras. Oceanographic studies for development of marine facilities at Cheyyur to handle the required coal transport were part of the study. This study included estimation of coal transport per ton basis for various options like offshore open jetty facility, shore based marine facilities and the required infrastructure like trestle and material handling equipment. NIOT has also undertaken a separate project for the study of area drainage scheme of the Cheyyur power plant area. This work involves field survey, modeling of hydrology and hydraulics and develop a solution for sustained drainage into the sea through the coastal inlet.

NIOT carried out environmental impact assessment for the new jetties proposed to be constructed by the Coast Guard & Indian Navy at Port Blair. The impact of disposal of dredge spoil has been studied for Gujarat Pipavav Port Ltd. Wave tranquillity studies and the port tenability analysis for catering to container vessels in Pipavav port were conducted. NIOT studied the sand bar formation at Cooum mouth, Chennai and recommended a groin-based mitigative measure to PWD, Tamilnadu. The same has been accepted and is under construction. At the request of Andhra Pradesh Power Generation Company, NIOT conducted underwater survey using ROV to examine scour around the piers and concrete apron. NIOT has taken up a project covering wave tranquillity, sedimentation in harbour basin and shoreline changes with regard to Ennore port.

Mission - IV: Marine Instrumentation

The Marine Instrumentation mission of NIOT is mainly oriented towards the goal of indigenous development of acoustic based instruments for marine and Oceanographic use which includes instruments for special applications such as underwater surveys and tidal level monitoring.

The Acoustic Tide Gauge (ATG) developed by NIOT has reached the stage of commercialization. An IP 65 qualified ATG has been working satisfactorily since April 1999 at Chennai Port Trust along with that of a Sutron gauge, U.S.A. installed in the vicinity. The tide data were validated by the Survey of India (SOI). The Survey Of India and NIOT have agreed to install three more gauges at Kochi, Mumbai and Portblair. The performance of this gauge compares well with similar gauges from abroad but cost only half of them. Tide gauges with telephone modem facility for remote data logging is under development for installation in other countries in the region.

A beacon lamp with an illuminative power of 80000 mcd for use of signalling the locations of data buoys or any structures situated in sea, has been developed using bright LED array which are available in yellow or red colours. A prototype acoustic Pinger system has also been developed, integrated with an imported transducer and its performance was successfully tested at 1000m (100 bar) depth. A handheld digital portable current meter is getting ready for field operation from a laboratory model.

NIOT is also involved in the development of some special sensors/ transducers, which form the heart of any marine instrument. A 33kHz underwater transceiver for Echo sounder is under development. Individual transducer element has been designed, fabricated and its underwater performance has been successfully evaluated. An array to give a 20 degree beam width has been designed, constructed and the laboratory tests are under progress. Another achievement is the technology demonstration of a single element underwater transmitter operating over a wide frequency range from 500Hz to 12 kHz, for the first time in the country. Further development of such a transducer for using in acoustic sub-bottom profiling application is underway. The development of an Integrated Underwater Survey System (IUSS), which comprises a 33kHz echo- sounder, 2-16kHz acoustic sub-bottom Profiler and a 190-210 kHz Side Scan Sonar has also been undertaken. The processing software which controls the electronics, communicate to interfacing devices, storage data etc. has been completed. The system design on the hardware part of the total IUSS using a high end DSP has been finalized and the tow body design is under progress.

National Data Buoy Programme

Considering the importance of in situ real-time measurements, the Department has set up a National Data Buoy Programme (NDBP) through National Institute of Ocean Technology (NIOT). Under this Programme, 15 moored data buoys have been procured through Oceanor, Norway. As per the planned task of the Programme, 12 data buoys were installed in the Indian seas. The real time data on surface meteorological and oceanographic parameters received through satellite are being transmitted daily to organisations like India Meteorological Department (IMD) (three times a day), Coast Guard, Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services (INCOIS) etc. Ports and R&D institutions also receive these data.

In consultation with Oceanor, Norway, NDBP team has modified the mooring design for data buoy for high current zone like Gulf of Cambay. The team took up the challenge to deploy the buoy during the high tide and current. The buoy has recorded a very high current speed of 190 cm/sec (4 Knots) and is working effectively.

NDBP made special efforts to support the BOBMEX (Bay of Bengal Monsoon Experiment) cruise to collect atmospheric and oceanographic data by deploying buoys at 13 deg N, 87 deg E and DS4 at 18 deg N, 88 deg E locations. These moored buoys have provided real time data for BOBMEX as well for validation of IRS-P4 data.

The deep water Wavescan buoys which are target of vandalism, are now being fitted with protective Aluminum hood over the Instrumentation cylinder and frame. This modification has been carried out to the wave scan buoys in Arabian Sea. Similar action will be taken for Wavescan buoys in Bay of Bangal.

Data buoys were deployed at new locations in Pipavav in June 99 and New Mangalore port in October 99 to collect met-0cean data to help in the development of these ports.

NDBP normally use the DOD vessel ORV Sagar Kanya for servicing of data buoys both in Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal. In the year, 10 retrievals and 14 deployment operations were carried out by NDBP.

New campus of NIOT at Pallikaranai, Narayanapuram, Chennai

First phase of construction consisting of technical complex, integration bay, utility building and trainees hostel were completed. Designs for the second phase of construction relating to establishment of acoustic test facility and shallow water harbour basin have been finalised and the preliminary activities for the construction on Acoustic Test facility initiated.

NON-PLAN PROGRAMMES

EXPLORATION OF LIVING AND NON-LIVING RESOURCES USING FORV SAGAR SAMPADA AND ORV SAGAR KANYA

FORV Sagar Sampada [Non-plan Scheme]

The vessel carried out 10 cruises in the Indian EEZ and undertook studies on environment, productivity, fish resource survey and algal blooms, deep scattering layers, benthos of the shelf waters and harvest technology. The autotrawl system and the Wadibuoy system onboard were redesigned and repaired indigenously.

ORV Sagar Kanya continued to function as a national facility for survey/assessment of marine non-living resources and oceanographic survey of the Indian Ocean under various multi-institutional and multi-disciplinary programmes of the national research laboratories/academic institutions etc.


CHAPTER III
Review of Overall Performance during 2000-2001



3.1 POLAR SCIENCES

The XX Indian Scientific expedition to Antarctica was launched on 30 December 2000 from Cape Town, South Africa under the overall coordination and supervision of NCAOR. The expedition consists of 54 members with 39 scientists, including two German scientists, drawn from 19 scientific institutions. This team seeks to carry out contemporary research in the various areas of polar sciences. It also plans to conduct six new experiments especially in the areas of global change research, geophysical exploration, environmental conservation and biological sciences. As many as ten different experiments are to be conducted during the course of the expedition which will directly contribute to the international scientific campaigns mounted by SCAR. An important aspect of this expedition will be the measurement of the ice thickness and investigation of sub ice strata by ground probe radar. A unique experiment is planned to be carried out to understand the influence of aerosol on the atmospheric radiation budget and climate over Antarctica. The communication facilities will be augmented through the induction of advanced SATCOM units.

Scientists from NCAOR attended the SCAR and the ATCM meetings as delegates from India. Negotiations for bilateral cooperation in Antarctic science and logistics with China and Germany were initiated.

National Centre for Antarctic and Ocean Research (NCAOR), Goa

The Phase I of the Centre consisting of the administrative and logistic wings was formally dedicated to the Nation by the Hon'ble Minister for Ocean Development on 5 April 2000 in the presence of the Governor of Goa. The Centre also organised the national Hindi science seminar titled "Bharat me vigyan ke barte charan" in which 55 participants from 25 national institutions participated.

The Phase II of the Centre encompassing the ice core laboratory complex and clean chemistry lab is under construction by CSIR. Seed R & D activities in the area of Polar Remote Sensing have been initiated in collaboration with other national institutes like SAC, Ahamedabad and K. Banerjee Centre for Atmospheric Sciences, Allahabad. Application of the Oceansat - I data is afoot for understanding the dynamics of sea ice formation and other large-scale Antarctic features. Ground truth data in Antarctica is under collection for validation of MSMR data onboard the Oceansat I.

As a part of its ongoing efforts to develop the Centre into a research institute of international standards, NCAOR has initiated action to develop and strengthen its core competence in such scientific disciplines as Polar Remote Sensing, Southern Ocean Oceanography & Paleoclimatology, and Antarctic Global Change Research.

3.2 Delineation of Outer Limits of Continental Shelf

NCAOR initiated a comprehensive desktop study of the data sources available to determine the scope of the Project, the type of data to be collected and development of a data acquisition program designed to maximize and sustain India's legal continental shelf claim. In addition, the work program initiated during the period encompassed the following:

- Coordinating the compilation of the available baseline and bathymetric data by the NHO so as to generate a base map of the project area defining the various marine jurisdictional zones as the EEZ, 350M limits, the 2500 m isobath and the foot of the continental slope (FOS)

- Tendering of contracts for the marine surveys which will underpin the country's submission to establish the precise outer limits of the continental margin as per the UNCLOS provisions and finalization of award.

- Assessment of the technical expertise available in the country with a view to maximizing the geo-scientific outcome from the Project as well as to involve a broad scientific community ensuring thereby that all LCS objectives are addressed during the data collection and subsequent studies.

3.3 Assessment of Marine Living Resources

3.3.1 Marine Environment and productivity studies: Under this programme five cruises were undertaken of which two were in the Andaman waters during winter and summer monsoon seasons and one in Arabian sea during inter monsoon ( Mar- May) and winter monsoon (fall, Oct). Data on Mixed Layer Depth (MLD) and latent heat fluxes suggest convective mixing in northern Arabian Sea during inter monsoon-spring. The mixing layer is more conspicuous in the coastal ocean than in Open Ocean. SST during this period varied between 25.4 and 27.42 deg C and temperature at 1000m depths ranged from 8.31 to 8.78 deg C. During Sept-Oct (inter monsoon fall) the mixed layers are deeper in southern Arabian Sea. In Andaman sea during January (winter monsoon) SST decreases towards north 14 deg C latidue. The MLDs were 50-100m deep. The temperature inversion observed below 1800m at 11 deg N & 94.35 deg E is a noticeable feature. The oxygen minimum layer of the North - West Arabian sea was observed between 50 to 800, the values ranged from 10-20 um. The Phosphate and nitrate values ranged between 0.4 - 4um and 4-40um respectively in 0 to 1000m. The maximum values for primary nitrite were in 25- 70m and that for secondary nitrate was in 300-750m depths. The silicate values ranged between 3-75um from 25-1000m. For South-West Arabian Sea the oxygen minimum layer was shifted down to 100m depths. The phosphate values obtained were 0.2 -3 um between 0-300m.

3.3.2 Fishery resource survey along continental slope: Four cruises of FORV Sagar Sampada dedicated to the project were carried out in the Indian EEZ. Good catches of deep-sea prawn Heterocarpus gibbusses were recorded in the month of April at 320 m depth (10 deg 23'N, 75 deg 26'E) off Ponnani. Using HSDT crustacean trawl, other deep sea species namely red ring-Aristius doochi, cusk eels, Chloropthalmus sp, spider crabs , Trichurus aurigies, Priacanthus sp, centrolopus sp were also recorded in the catch. Bottom trawling operation carried out during June in the continental slope along the Bay of Bengal at depth range 300-900m indicated area 11 04' N, 8 19'E (828-850m depth) is a good ground for deep sea prawn. The deep sea prawn varied from 188 to 300mm in length and 76 gm to 135 gm in weight. Survey of the slope of the Andaman Nicobar Island for demersal fish in depth zone of 200 - 400m depth showed dominance of Cubiceps spp. Total catch of 3252 Kg of fishes were obtained in 15 hours of operation gaving CPUE of 256 Kg. Above 400m depth, 4 new grounds for bottom trawling were identified. Bottom trawling operation conducted at 27 stations along the continental slope of Arabian Sea between depth range 218-750 during November yielded 9.7 tonnes demersal fish in 20.83 hrs of fishing operation giving catch per unit effort of 466.25 Kg per hour. Maximum CPUE of 6100 Kg per hour was obtained in High Speed Demersal Trawl (HSDT) crustacean version at lat. 8 deg 42'N long. 75 deg 39'E. at depth of 300m. Dominant species recorded were Chloropthalmus, Cubisceps, Psenopsis, Neoepinnula orientalis, Zenopsis sp, Priacanthus, Shrimps (Solenoera sp, Heterocarpus gibbosus, H. Woodmasoni,) and lobsters (Nephropsis stewarti, Peurulus sewelli).

3.3.3 Studies on the Deep Scattering Layer (DSL): Biological samplings were made from the appropriate layers of DSL both during day and night by Issac Kidd Midwater Trawl and wherever the DSL was prominent and dense, pelagic trawling was also conducted. Besides the above, bottom trawl was also operated to collect demersal resources in the DSL stations to study the energy flow from the surface down to benthic realm. The salient research findings are;

West Coast: Biomass appeared between 0.17 gm / 1000 m and 30.53 gm / 1000 m lowest values recorded at 11 deg 20'N and 74 deg 09'E and the highest values were observed at 12 deg 29'N and 74 deg 09'E with nektonic components contributing the bulk. Though in the overall figures, pelagic shrimps and myctophids appear as the dominant items, the other mesopelagics like gonostomatidae, sternophthycide, astronesthidae, stomiidae, chauliodontidae etc do make significant contributions to the biodiversity of the DSL. Biological studies of these fish groups reveals that majority of them feed on the zooplanktons and micronektons of the DSL. Stratified samplings from 30-40m and 390-400m depth were carried out at 6 deg 40'N 77 30'E. The appearance of 60m thick DSL below 350 m depth at night was a unique feature and these can be considered as the non-migratory DSL. The biomass of 15.59 g / 1000m was contributed mainly by pelagic shrimps, crabs , cephalopods, myctophids, chauliodontidae, euphausids and medusae. The cephalopods obtained from this layer were bigger than the usual samples.

East Coast: FORV cruises surveyed area from 10 deg to 20 deg N. 80 deg to 87 deg E during the monsoon months. The thickness of the DSL varied between 10 and 200m. The dominant items were pelagic shrimps, myctophids, leptocephalus, crabs, cephalopods, euphausiids and siphonophores. Bottom trawling was done at 16 stations and the catch varied from 7.4 Kg to 147.5 Kg. Chlorophtalmus spp, Cubiceps spp., Priacanthus spp and deep sea prawns were the major items.

3.3.4 Studies on Toxic Algal Blooms: Samples collected from 6 cruises of FORV(151 stations) were analysed for toxic algal presence. In the month of June, two algal blooms were detected in the Bay of Bengal. Blooms of Trichodesmium spp extending an area of 250m were observed in the area 15 deg 02'N - 80 deg 23'E on 19/6/2000. Another bloom of Trichodesmium spp extending an area of 1.5 Km was encountered on the same day at area 15 deg 46N' - 81 deg 17'E. Samples have been collected for further analysis.

3.3.5 Benthic Productivity studies: Data indicate a rough production of marine benthos to the tune of 3.6 million tones from an area of about 2,51,631.36 km sq ( the assumption made here is that most of the macro benthos have got a life span of one year and meiobenthos of about three months). The standing stock of benthos is found to be 28,916.7 kg/km/yr (7040 kg/km2/yr for macrobenthos and 21876 kg/km2/yr for meiobenthos) in 30 m depth, 17,127 kg/km2/yr (5355 kg/km2/yr for macrobenthos and 11,771 kg/km2.yr for meiobenthos) in 50 m depth, 8,260.8 kg/km2/yr (2705.5 kg/km2/yr for macrobenthos and 5555.3 kg/km2/yr for meiobenthos) in 100 m depth and 5,090.5 kg/km2/yr (1464.5 kg/km2/yr for macrobenthos and 3626 kg/km2/yr for meiobenthos) in 200 m depth. This indicates a rapid decline in benthic biomass as the depth increases.

3.3.6 Harvest Technology: Studies were undertaken under this project with CIFT designed trawls namely HSDT-II (Fish and Crustacean version). 51m long- wing semi-pelagic trawl and 33.7m mega mesh trawl. HSDT II (fish version) was found to be very efficient in landing bottom resources mainly fishes. There was an isolated observation of 1.6 tons of Priacanthus hamrur at Lat.20 deg 10'N and Long.70 deg 22' E. It also landed 2.2 tones of Odenus niger along the South West coast of India. During one of the cruises along the east coast, it landed a rare species of shark viz. Echinorhinus brucus weighing a total of 320 kg from a depth of 260m. HSDT II (Crustacean version) landed mainly crustaceans. This gear landed a species of lobster viz. Nephropsis stewarti, considered to be very rare in Indian waters. Field experiments were carried out to study the escapement factors, catch composition, discard percentage, maturity patterns etc of trawl fishes along the west coast using various bottom trawls designed indigenously. Studies indicate that square mesh panel of 40mm and 50mm size in the trawl gear permit higher escapement of juvenile and thereby contribute to replenishment of trawl fish stock.

Drugs from the Sea

The achievements during 2000-01 would include:-

* Collection and identification of about 50 new marine flora and fauna for chemical extraction and evaluation.

* Initiation of long -term stability studies of the active standardized preparations of the anti-diabetic and anti- diarrhoeal leads.

* Continuation of the next sequential step of development of Drugs from Marine organisms.

3.4 Marine Non-living Resources ( Polymetallic Nodules Programme )

Survey & Exploration : The activities included :

* Spot sampling of nodules using grab sampler with spot photography at 5km. grid for assessing the trends of higher abundance and revalidation of the earlier assessment.

* Updating of geo-statistical resource evaluation in the pioneer area.

* Preparation of report recommending relinquishment of additional 20% of the Pioneer area has been initiated.

Recolonisation Study at CIOB : The activities included :

* The recolonisation study of benthic organisms by monitoring the sea bottom. The activities to be undertaken include:

* Deep-tow, CTD and Rosette observations near seabed at the test & reference areas.

* Collection of box corer samples at the test and reference areas.

* Automatic weather monitoring.

Technology Development (Mining) : The activities included :

* Series of demonstration of the shallow bed mining system under taken.

* Detailed engineering and specification of a mining complex module of 25,000 ts./yr. capacity for 6000 m. depth is being carried out jointly by NIOT and the German counterpart IKS, University of Siegen, Germany.

Unmanned Submersibles

* Testing of upgraded version of ROV developed by CMERI at a water depth of 250 m.

* Development of manipulator for underwater operation and testing of materials for deep sea operations.

* Commissioning of the joint collaborative programme for the design, development and testing of unmanned submersible capable of working up to 6000 m. This work would jointly be carried out by NIOT and Russian counterpart under Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow.

Technology Development (Extractive Metallurgy)

* Work related to setting up of demonstration pilot plant 500 kg./day capacity nodules throughput at HZL(U) for validation of the flow-sheet developed by RRL(B) and BARC, Mumbai is under process.

* Continuation of R&D activities for optimisation of extraction efficiencies for extraction of metal values (Cu., Ni., Co., Mn.) at NML(J), RRL(B) and HZL(U).

* Work related to process-package development for recovery of manganese in the form of alloys/metal from leach residue of RRL (B) process route.

* Bulk sample collection for continuous demonstration pilot plant.

Palaeoceanographic Studies in the Bay of Bengal Fan :

* Bathymetric studies in parts of Bay of Bengal were undertaken and short core camples collected;

* Areas have been identified for collection of long cores for palaeoceanographic studies.

3.5 Marine and Coastal Area Management

Coastal Ocean Monitoring and Prediction System (COMAPS)

The implementation schedule of COMAPS programme was modified containing the following components viz.,

a) Pollution Monitoring
b) Liaison, Regulation and Legislation and
c) Consultancy Services.

While the ICMAM-PD is responsible for implementation of the components at (i) and (ii) above, the NIOT executes the component (iii) above. The data collection and monitoring of pollution levels was intensified at 12 selected hot spots where continuous monitoring once in three months and modelling was carried out. The monitoring was also carried out in 25 out of 82 sampling points, which are "no concern" areas, but are vulnerable for pollution. In the remaining 45 selected locations of "no concern" areas the pollution monitoring is proposed to be carried out only once in two years. The number of institutions carrying out these activities was reassessed in the light of the above changes in the monitoring programme and it was reduced to five institutions viz., NIO, Goa; CESS, Trivandrum; A&N Centre of NIOT, Port Blair; Anna University, Chennai and RRL, Bhuvaneswar, for pollution monitoring.

Coastal Research Vessels

The cruises for COMAPS programme were continued and the vessels were also utilised for other programmes like Integrated Coastal and Marine Area Management (ICMAM) programme and ONGC offshore survey. Spare vessel time was made available for the use of private and public sector undertakings as a part of the revenue-earning program using the vessel and the vessel management cell staff services. Research and development activities like CTD observations for detecting the ground water discharge and bathymetry surveys for NIOT mission mode programs were also taken up.

Integrated Coastal and Marine Area Management (ICMAM)

The activities on all the 4 Capacity Building projects and 3 projects on Research & Development relating to ICMAM were further intensified and the following results achieved.

a) Critical Habitat Information System (CHIS) for Pichavaram, Kadamat, Karwar and Gulf of Mannar completed. The database development for all these areas has also been completed. Development of Database and GIS for other sites are in progress.

b) The field studies required for Determination of Waste Assimilation Capacity for Ennore work were completed and the modelling exercises are in progress. The required field activities for Waste Assimilation Capacity for Tapi are in progress.

c) EIA guidelines for Ports and harbours have been finalised and submitted to Ministry of Environment & Forests for issuing to the project proponents etc. Draft guidelines for other sectors, namely, tourism and waste disposal are under preparation.

d) The workshop and user consultation meeting for Chennai Plan has been completed and the key issues and problems have been identified. The key issues identified for Goa and Gulf of Kachchh during the workshop held in the previous year were further analysed during the User consultation meetings both at the district and the village level. A prototype cross impact model to understand the cross-sectoral impacts of all the problems has been developed.

3.6 Ocean Observation and Information Services (OOIS) : Some important activities under this are :

Ocean Observing Systems

* Redeployment of existing current meter and deployment of new current meter array along the equator

* Deployment of a set of 10 SVP-B drifting buoys for acquisition of surface meteorological and upper ocean parameters towards understanding the surface currents and validation campaigns of IRS-P4 satellite data.

* Conducting XBT cruises for obtaining vertical temperature data for estimation of heat budget in the upper layers of the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea.

Ocean Information Services

* Recruitment and training of scientific personnel and setting up of infrastructure for Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services (INCOIS), Hyderabad

* Continuation of generation and dissemination of improved PFZ forecasts by integrating with new algorithms. Continuation of SST as in the previous years and experimental product generation for the North Indian Ocean.

* Review of activities of Marine Data Centres (MDCs) established by the Department under MARSIS and NOIS programmes and conduct a National workshop for effective dissemination of information pertaining to coastal and off-shore oceans around India

* Recruitment and Training of INCOIS personnel

* Operationalisation of Models developed by SAC for generation and dissemination of data products

* Archival and dissemination of data from data buoys and maintenance of Meta data of MDCs

Ocean Dynamics & Modelling

* Validation of the coupled atmospheric Ocean Models (CAOM) to provide forcing parameters for general ocean circulation models

* Conducting sensitivity tests for CAOM for prediction of storm surges associated with tropical cyclones along the Indian Coast

* Sensitivity and validation experiments with regional wave prediction model for the Bay of Bengal.

* Conducting experiments to determine the sensitivity for development of Coupled models for prediction of Indian Monsoons

Satellite Coastal and Oceanographic Research (SATCORE)

* Completion of R & D activities for upgradation of existing algorithms, development of version-I software by using other algorithms and improved models.

* Completion of Packing and customization of version -II software for retrieval of Ocean parameters.

* Preparation of Experiment design for Ocean State Forecast.

3.7 Marine Research and Capacity Building & Manpower Training

9 ongoing research projects and the projects under OSTCs were continued. In addition to 10 ongoing fellowships, 15 fellowships at CIFE, Mumbai, Madras University, Anna University, Berhampur University and Goa University will also receive financial assistance based on progress of work. OSTCs will be strengthened in the form of infrastructure and equipment. The projects will be monitored by OSTCs in subjects specified by group of experts on regular basis. Training courses, workshop and international seminars will be organised by OSTCs in respective areas of specialisation.

3.8 Coastal Community programmes

Island Development

Refurbishment of wet lab at Neelankarai and construction of a re- circulatory seawater facility for larval rearing at Narayanapuram are expected to be completed. Further research on formulation of appropriate feeds for the enhancement of growth in juvenile lobsters, was continued. Hormonal manipulation during fattening of lobsters was initiated. Development of larval rearing technology in Indian spiny lobster, which was taken up during 1999-2000, was continued in the facilities available at Neelankarai. Identification of pathogenic organisms and development of methodology for eradication of these pathogens using chemotherapeutents was continued. The pre-ranching survey during wet season in Andaman & Nicobar Islands was completed. The technology for fattening of lobsters and mud crab at Andaman & Nicobar Islands and lobsters in the main land, was disseminated to the coastal community and selected entrepreneurs.

Ocean Awareness

With a view to promote awareness among the public and school children, participation in the exhibition and fairs was extended. DOD participated in the India International Trade Fair during November 2000. DOD also participated in Vigyan Darshnam exhibition held on the occasion of Mahakumbh in Allahabad during January 2001. Financial support was extended to a number of seminars, symposia, workshops etc.

Information Technology and Computers

The Computer network of the Department was maintained at the optimum level. New hardware was added to the existing network.

3.9 International Co-operation

During the year 2000-2001 contributions were made to international Commissions and organizations like UNCLOS, ISBA, COMNAP/ SCALOP, CCAMLR, IOC, Regional Seas Programmes,. etc. India participated in the IOC Executive Council and other meetings of IOC, IOCINDO, International Sea bed Authority, Antarctic Treaty System (ATS) Environmental Protection of ATS, Commission for Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources etc.

India continued to contribute to the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR). India participated in the meetings of the Working Group on Ecosystem Monitoring and Management (WG-EMM). India also chaired the CCAMLR-XVIII and participated in the deliberations therein.

Delineation of Outer Limits of Continental Shelf

The related outstanding issues are broadly resolved and baselines of India are expected to be promulgated by Ministry of External Affairs upon necessary approvals from the Government. The promulgation of baselines is necessary to take up work in accordance with Article 76.

Determination of Foot of Slope (FOS)

The National Hydrographic Office (NHO) has been entrusted with this work. All the necessary data was submitted by Geological Survey of India to National Hydrographic Office for compilation and processing. The NHO has recently procured the software for mathematically determining the FOS and completed training of its staff. It is expected that the FOS determined to meet the standards prescribed by Commission on the Limits of Continental Shelf will be available shortly. The determination of FOS is necessary to take up work in accordance with either Annex II or Article 76.

Thickness of the Sedimentary Rocks

Since the baselines and foot of the slope are the pre-requisites for undertaking the seismic survey, it will not be possible to initiate seismic survey during the current financial year. The seismic data of 29000 km is required to be acquired in Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal and parts of Indian Ocean. The data acquisition will be followed by data processing, analysis and interpretation. It is estimated that the physical seismic survey work and the related data processing will take about six months. The full work can be completed in 2001- 02. India has time till June 2005 to file claim. There is thus no need to take up survey before satisfactorily resolving the issues listed above. Accordingly BE provision was revised to Nil for the year 2000-01 and Rs.43 crores projected as the requirement for the year 2001-02.

Directorate General of Hydrocarbons was designated as the Certifying Agency for Seismic Data.

3.10 National Institute of Ocean Technology (NIOT) : The main activities included:

Mission-1: Ocean Energy

* Fabrication, erection and commissioning of 1 MW Floating OTEC Plant off the coast of Tuticorin

* Design, fabrication, erection and commissioning of Navigational Buoy based on Backward Bent Ducted Buoy Principle

* Performance analysis of fixed guide vanes impulse turbine at National Test Facility, Vizhinjam

Mission-2: Deep Sea Technology and Ocean Mining

* Measurement of pressure losses in flexible riser system meant for pumping of slurry at different concentrations
* Submission of Project report for pilot mining of polymetallic nodules at 6000 m depth
* Development of collector and crusher and its integration with existing crawler for carrying out tests using artificial nodules.
* In-situ measurement of soil properties at Indian nodule mining site at 6000 metre water depth.
* Development and testing of underwater thruster of 800 W power rating and 140mm diameter for operations at 1000m depth.
* Development of large solids handling jet pump based on earlier studies for a maximum solids pumping capacity of 100 tonnes per hour.
* Design and manufacture of smart solids handling jet pump.
* Testing of underwater connector suitable for operations at 1000 metre water depth.

Mission-3: Coastal and Environmental Engineering

* Area Drainage Studies and recommendations for plant level for NTPC
* Feasibility Studies on Coal Transport logistics and development of marine facilities for NTPC power plant at Cheyyur
* Geophysical, Geotechnical and Hydrographic investigations for determining a submarine pipeline route across the Gulf of Khambhat
* Numerical model studies for development of Fishing Harbour at Thengapatnam, Tamil Nadu and Quilandy, Kerala.
* Environmental Impact and Risk Assessment Studies for Van Ommeren MAC Tank Terminals Ltd, Coast Guard and Indian Navy.
* Modelling of Dredge Spoil Disposal for Gujarat Pipavav Port Ltd.
* Modelling of watershed sediment erosion for RITES
* Advice to ICMAM on modelling for water quality issues related to ICMAM
* Hydrographic component for COMAPS Programme - Completion of 2 surveys
* Completion of all surveys and initiation of modelling - WLA
* Completion of draft EIA guidelines for Ports & Harbours

Mission-4: Marine Instrumentation

* Fabrication of Acoustic Tide Gauges with battery back up and telemetry option for deployment at Kochi, Mumbai, A&N Islands and Vietnam.
* Development of transducer for Echo-sounder with frequency operation of 33 kHz and beam width of 20o for IUSS Project
* Development of 12 kHz transceiver with omni-directivity for Pinger and Acoustic Release system initially for 300m depth
* Development of processing software / control electronic hardware for Echo- sounder - IUSS
* Development of Acoustic Pinger for depth operation of 6000m
* Feasibility study on freshness index meter for fish meat to detect ammonia and TMA/ DMA gases.
* Development of Portable Digital current meter for field operation from a laboratory model.
* Commissioning of Acoustic Test Facility for calibration of transducers.
* Testing of Control electronic hardware for Echo-sounder subsystem of IUSS project.
* Development of a high power wide band transducer for sub-bottom profiling system.

NON-PLAN

EXPLORATION AND ASSESSMENT OF LIVING AND NON-LIVING RESOURCES

FORV Sagar Sampada conducted 11 scientific cruises in the Indian EEZ in which 11 organizations with 140 participants including Sagar Sampada Cell participated. The vessel generated valuable oceanographic data by covering 308 stations in the EEZ of India. The total track distance covered by the vessel was 48217 nautical miles. The vessel conducted 3 trial cruises also to calibrate the acoustic equipment as well as to field test Auto Trawl system on board. The major scientific programme covered were: (i) Seasonal coverage of Environmental and Productivity pattern from the East coast and West coast of Indian EEZ (ii) Demersal Fishery survey along the continental slope in the depth range of 200- 1000 m depth (iii) collection of sediments from 64 stations along the shelf of the East coast for Benthic Standing Crop estimations (iv) Locations and sampling of DSL (v) Investigation of Toxic Algal blooms in the Indian EEZ and (vi) Dedicated harvest technology cruises for selectivity studies. During the year 38 scientists/professors/research staff from various national laboratories/universities made study visit to FORV Sagar Sampada.

ORV Sagar Kanya continued to provide the rich facilities for undertaking survey/assessment of marine non-living resources within and outside the Indian EEZ through dedicated cruises in the Bay of Bengal, Arabian Sea and the Indian Ocean.

CHAPTER IV
Activities/Targets for 2001-02



4.1 POLAR SCIENCES

During the year 2001-2002 the NCAOR plans to coordinate and launch the XXI Indian Scientific Expedition to Antarctica through a multi-institutional and multi-disciplinary approach. Efforts would be made to induct state of the art experiments in accordance to the long-term science strategy for the Antarctic expeditions. Instruments like All Sky Image Camera for auroral studies, advanced GPR for ice thickness profiling, Gas Chromatograph and Infrared Analyser for trace gas studies are planned to be inducted in order to contribute in the frontier areas of Antarctic research. It is also envisaged to initiate meaningful logistic cooperation with other countries, which can lead to operational and financial advantages.

National Centre for Antarctic and Ocean Research (NCAOR), Goa

The Phase II laboratory building along with the HVAC system for the ice core laboratories are expected to be commissioned. The communication networking with Antarctica and other participating laboratories through the establishment of the National Antarctic Data Centre is also planned to be taken up. Facilities for sea-ice-atmospheric modeling studies of the Antarctic continent and the southern oceans by employing advanced remote sensing techniques is also envisaged to be inducted during this period. Trained and expert scientific manpower is proposed to be recruited to strengthen the scientific core competence in specific areas for in house R & D activities in polar sciences.

Financial requirement: Rs. 20.00 crores

4.2 Delineation of Continental Shelf

* Acquisition, processing and analysis of seismic data in Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal and Indian Ocean with participation from Geological Survey of India, National Institute of Oceanography, National Geophysical Research Institute etc.

* Preparation of maps, reports etc in the required format as per the Guidelines of the Commission for submission of claims.

Financial Requirement Rs. 43.00 crores

4.3 Marine Living Resources

Assessment of Marine Living Resources: The ongoing MLR projects viz, Assessment of environment and productivity patterns, resource assessment of deep sea demersal fishes along the continental slope of the Indian EEZ, studies on deep scattering layers, investigations on the benthic productivity, studies on toxic algal blooms, studies on harvest technology and predictive modeling of fishes off Andhra coast will be continued. The emphasis will be on coverage of the entire Indian EEZ for the Winter, Summer and Inter monsoon periods. In addition, new projects on 'Hydroacoustic techniques for estimation of DSL and fish biomass, studies on column productivity and inventorying of marine bioresources' will be taken up.

Financial requirements: Rs.2.96crore

Drugs from the Sea

The activities and targets for 2001-02 include:

* Bulk preparations of standardized anti - diabetic fraction for chronic toxicity study.

* Completing long- term stability studies of both anti- diabetic and anti- diarrhoeal preparations.

* Initiating clinical trials of the anit-diabectic, anti- diarrhoeal and hypolipidaemic agents.

Financial Requirements: Rs 2.20 crores

4.4 Marine Non-living Resources

Polymetallic Nodules Programme

Survey & Exploration:

* Spot sampling of nodules in marginal blocks using grab sampler with spot photography at 5 km. grid for assessing the trends of higher abundance and revalidation of the earlier assessment for finalisation of relinquishment.

* Updating geo-statistical resource evaluation in the pioneer area.

Recolonisation study at CIOB:

The recolonisation study of benthic organisms by monitoring the sea bottom. The activities to be undertaken include:

* CTD and Rosette observations near seabed at the test & reference areas.

* Collection of box corer samples at the test and reference areas.

* Automatic weather monitoring.

Technology Development (Mining):

* Preparation of the detailed engineering and specifications of an integrated mining complex module of 25,000 tonnes/ year capacity of 6000 m depth to be carried out jointly by NIOT and the German counterpart IKS, University of Siegen, Germany.

* Development of the shallow bed mining system for operation at 6000 m to be undertaken.

Unmanned submersibles:

* Testing of upgraded version of ROV developed by CMERI at a water depth of 250 m.

* Development of manipulator for underwater operation and testing of materials for deep sea operations.

* Joint collaborative Programme for the design, development and testing of unmanned submersible capable of working up to 6000 m will be taken up. This work would jointly be carried out by NIOT and Russian counterpart under Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow.

Technology Development (Extractive Metallurgy):

* Erection & commissioning of demonstration pilot plant at 500 kg/ day capacity nodules throughput at HZL, Udaipur for validation of the flow-sheet developed by RRL, Bhubaneswar and BARC, Mumbai. Pilot plant campaigns of 40 days each will undertaken.

* Continuation of R&D activities for optimisation of extraction efficiencies for extraction of metal values (Cu, Ni, Co, Mn) at NML (J), RRL (B) and HZL (U). The data generated in the demonstration plant and associated R&D work in other laboratories for selective scale up studies would be analysed with objective of designing a commercial plant.

* Work related to process package development for recovery of manganese in the form of alloys/ metal from leach residue of RRL (B) process route.

* Bulk sample collection for continuous demonstration pilot plant.

Financial requirement: Rs.17.30 crores

Palaeoceanographic Stuides in the Bay of Bengal Fan (BENFAN) :

Investigations shall be undertaken at the various participating institutions and universities towards the following targeted objectives:

* Preparation of bathymetry map of the Central Bay of Bengal and study the geomorphology;

* Study the SW and NE monsoon variations during the quaternary period and document the preservations patterns of calcium carbonate on glacial and interglacial time scales;

* Study the palaeoceanographic changes during quaternary periods using benthic foraminiferal techniques;

* Understand link between climate change with weathering intensity in Himalayas.

Financial requirement: Rs.1.15 crores

4.5 Marine and Coastal Area Management

Coastal Ocean Monitoring and Prediction System (COMAPS)

Under the restructured COMAPS programme, the following activities will continue to be carried out during 2001-2002.

1. Studies on spatial and temporal variation of pollutants in areas of immediate concern and selected areas of potential concern, identify source of pollutants and on this basis, suggest steps for control/abatement of pollutants by conducting intensified monitoring at 12 selected hot spots, monitoring of pollution in the remaining 70 sampling points of "no concern" areas to keep a watch on the health of the sea;

2. Incorporate Impact Assessment Studies on Living Resources;

3. Continuation of the physical oceanography and modelling (prediction programme) by National Institute of Ocean Technology):

4. Study the level and impact of pesticide pollution in the sampling locations;

5. Collection and depositing mircobial strains in the National Microbial Reference Centre at NIO;

6. Continuation of the inter-calibration and quality control exercises by C- MARS; and

7. Create public awareness on these issues.

Financial Requirement: Rs.4.05 crore

Coastal Research Vessel

* CRV Sagar Purvi & Sagar Paschimi would undertake 48 cruises for pollution monitoring both in the east and West Coast. Scientists from CECRI and NIO, Vizag and other oceanographic observations for IOM, Anna university, University of Madras would participate.

* Physical oceanographic observations & microbiological studies for the waste load allocation project under ICMAM would be continued.

* Observation of critical habitats in Lakshadweep.

* Monitoring of pollution in the hot spots.

* Monitoring of sea turtles.

* CTD observations off Chennai for ground water discharge.

* Corrosion studies and prevention, behavior of materials in deep sea.

* Consultancy works for public and private sector undertakings using the vessels.

Financial Requirement: Rs.3.94 crore

Integrated Coastal and Marine Area Management (ICMAM)

a) Continuation of task relating to development of GIS for the remaining 7 areas.

b) User interaction in application of GIS for management of critical habitats.

c) Completion of Waste Assimilation Capacity studies for Tapi, Ennore and their finalisation in Consultation with users.

d) Initiation of field activities required for determination of Waste Assimilation Capacity for Hooghly.

e) Completion of guidelines for waste disposal and tourism and initiation of guidelines for marine transportation.

f) Development of draft ICMAM Plan for Chennai

g) Analysis of environmental problems and key issues identified in Goa and Gulf of Kachchh and providing inputs to the Decision Support System.

Long-term R&D and Training

a) Initiation of eco-toxicological studies as a part of the project on "Determination of Use Classification for coastal waters".

b) Continuation of training on application of GIS for management of critical habitats.

Financial Requirement Rs 6.50 crores

4.6 Ocean Observation and Information Services(OOIS)

Ocean Observing Systems

* Conducting Pilot-phase of ARGO project by procurement and deployment of a set of 6 floats in the northern Indian Ocean.

* Deployment of Drifting buoys in the Indian Ocean and compilation of all the data generated by various instruments such as XBT, Drifting buoys, Current Meter array.

* Deployment and retrieval of a current meter array in the equatorial Indian Ocean.

Ocean Information Services

* Commissioning of Information Bank and Ocean Web Services for effective dissemination of ocean data and data products to the various national and international users

* Experimental generation of Ocean State Forecast for the northern Indian Ocean.

* Continuation of SST as in the previous years and experimental product generation for the North Indian Ocean. Continuation of generation and dissemination of PFZ forecasts

* Continuation of operation and Maintenance of Marine Data Centres (MDCs)

Ocean Dynamics & Modelling

* Development of Stochastic Dynamic of coupled models to study the air-sea interaction processes.

* Validation of coupled storm surge models for prediction of storm surges associated with tropical cyclones along the coast of India.

* Semi-operational analysis of Indian sea by applying assimilation techniques for prediction of surface currents, temperatures and salinity

* Operationalisation of wave prediction model for the Indian Ocean required for coastal developmental activities.

* Integration with the coupled Atmospheric-Ocean Model and conducting simulation studies using observations for long term forecasting of monsoon.

* Testing of water quality models for environmental impact assessment studies of estuarine regions.

Satellite Coastal & Oceanographic Research (SATCORE)

* Operationalisation of experimental Ocean State Forecast system for the Indian Ocean

* Customization of algorithms for retrieval of ocean parameters from the remote sensing satellite sensors

* Finalisation of data assimilation models and regional algorithms for retrieval of coastal, oceanic and meteorological parameters and conversion to software packages for operational/ semi-operational use by INCOIS

Financial Requirement Rs 19.70 crores

4.7 Marine Research and Capacity Building & Manpower Training

Ongoing research projects will receive financial assistance. Under OSTC system, 4 ongoing projects under OSTC, Berhampur University, 10 ongoing projects under OSTC Bhavnagar University, 6 ongoing projects under OSTC, CUSAT, Kochi, 6 ongoing projects under OSTC Annamalai University, 4 ongoing projects under Tamil University, Thanjavur will also receive financial assistance. New OSTCs will be strengthened with necessary equipment and infrastructure. About 20 new fellowships are expected to be approved during this year.

Financial Requirement Rs 4.10 crores

4.8 Coastal Community Programmes

Ocean Awareness

Continuation of the Department's participation in the exhibition and fairs and financial support for a number of seminars/ symposias/ workshops etc with a view to promote awareness among the public and school children.

Financial support: 0.80 crores

Information Technology and Computers

Some more hardware and software would be added to the existing computer facilities available in the Department. Existing computer network would be maintained at the optimum level. The Department would connect some of its offices through Virtual Private Network..

Financial support: 0.20 crores

4.9 International Co-operation

The Department would continue to release contributions to various International and Intergovernmental agencies. The Department would also continue to participate in the state parties meetings on Law of the Sea, International Sea Bed Authority (ISBA), Antarctic Treaty consultative meetings, Committee on Sustainable Development, Commission on Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR), Working group on Ecosystem Monitoring and Management of CCAMLR, Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research, standing committee on Antarctic Logistic and Operations, International Oceanography Commission, (JGOFS & GOODS) programs, Regional Seas Programs, Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network, South Asia, etc.

Financial support: 0.70 crores.

International Cooperation : CCAMLR COMPONENT

Contributions to the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) would be continued. In addition to participation in the meetings of CCAMLR-XX, WG-EMM and WG-FSA, deputation of a scientific observer on board the Russian vessel to Antarctic waters, as part of CCAMLR scientific observer/inspection scheme, arrangement of a lecture series in India on Antarctic Marine Living Resources by former Chairman, Scientific Committee, CCAMLR and participation at the training programme on CCAMLR Catch Documentation Scheme in Mauritius are also envisaged during 2001-02.

Financial requirement : Rs. 0.37 crore

4.10 National Institute of Ocean Technology (NIOT)

Mission-I Ocean Energy

* Studies on 1 MW OTEC plant and preparation of final report on the pilot scale demonstration of technology for 1 MW OTEC plant.

* Commissioning of desalination plant at Vizhinjam.

* Feasibility studies on OTEC plant at islands.

Mission-II Deep sea technologies and Ocean Mining

* Qualification of collector and crusher system

* Insitu measurement of soil properties at Indian nodule mining site at 6000 metre water depth

* Mining applications development using underwater crawler vehicle

* Studies on pressure losses in hoses with S shaped profile

* Development of Underwater connector

* Development of underwater thrusters

* Development of Smart solids handling jet pump.

* Design and development of hyper bane chamber.

Mission-III Coastal and Evironmental Engineering

* Monitoring the sand bar formation at the mouth of Cooum consequent to ongoing construction of groins.

* Tranquility studies for the II Phase development of Ennore Port

* Field and numerical studies for the coastal zone management of the stretch between Chennai port and Ennore port and to study the impact of new harbour.

* Water quality monitoring of area north of Ennore port including Pulicat lake.

* Hydrodynamic modelling of sediment movement along the Sogal Channel of Kandla Port and the conceptual design of civil structures to minimise siltation

* EIA studies for the expansion of Ninth cargo berth and other facilities at Kandla Port

* WLA studies at Hooghly waterways

* Monitoring of sediment movement in the Pilot launch basin of Sagar islands

* Field monitoring study of sand bar at Ennore creek mouth and numerical modelling of water quality and sedimentation at Ennore creek

* Development of geotechnical and geophysical facilities for use in different marine field projects.

Mission-IV Marine Instrumentation

* Development of second generation State-of-the-art Acoustic Tide Gauges.

* Development of Echo-sounder / Acoustic Sub-bottom Profiler with tow fish for IUSS project and design of the Tow Body.

* Development of Prototype Acoustic Sub-system Profiler transducer with improved band width (2-16 kHz).

* Development of prototype 2-16 kHz Magneto-restrictive transducers for oceanographic applications.

* Continuation of development of 12 kHz transceiver for Pinger system for deep- water operations.

* Complete development of the deep-water prototype Acoustic Pinger system.

* Establishment of Test and Calibration procedure for underwater transducers and the implementation of any additional instrumentation required.

Financial Requirement: Rs.13.30 crore

4.11 Administrative Support:

* Initiation of the process for filling up of the vacant posts and creation of approved additional posts.

* Provision of the requisite infrastructure support to the Department and its attached offices for reviewing, implementing and monitoring various approved plan programmes.

Financial Requirement: Rs.1.50 crore

NON-PLAN PROGRAMMES

EXPLORATION OF MARINE LIVING AND NON-LIVING RESOURCES USING FORV SAGAR SAMPADA AND ORV SAGAR KANYA

F O R V Sagar Sampada (non plan): The vessel will be utilized primarily for meeting the requirements of the MLR programme viz seasonal coverage of the Indian EEZ.

Financial requirements: Rs.2.56 crore under plan and Rs.10.31 crore under non plan.

ORV Sagar Kanya (non plan): would continue to provide the facilities for undertaking survey/assessment of marine non-living resourses within and outside the Indian EEZ. In particular, the vessel shall be deployed to meet the needs of Deaprtmental Programmes such as Bay of Bengal Process Studies (BOBPS), Land-Ocean Intraction on the Coastal Zone (LOICZ), Ocean Observation Systems (OOS) in the Equatorial Indian Ocean, Polymetallic Nodule Programme (PMN), National Data Buoy Programme (NDBP) and IRS-P4 Validation, and geological surveys for the Legal Continental Shelf (LCS) Programme.

Financial Requirement: Rs. 13.77 crore

CHAPTER V
Appraisal of Performance of Major Programmes/Projects



5.1 Polar Science (Antarctic Research) Programme

The Antarctic Research programme, which was initiated in 1981, has taken the shape of a major national programme that has a distinct multi-institutional and multi-disciplinary approach. So far 22 scientific expeditions have been launched on a regular basis including two expeditions to the Southern Oceans one to Weddel Sea and another one for assessment of Antarctic Krill, which have carried out research work in the thrust areas of polar science. Till date, more than 55 national institutions have participated in the scientific and logistic components of the expedition thereby taking about 1425 Indians to the icy continent.

For the first time the Indian Polar Science Programme the XIX expedition to Antarctica was launched from Cape Town, South Africa on 9 December, 1999, which has resulted in scientific, logistic and financial advantages. It has also paved way for future international cooperation in the field of polar science between India and other countries using Cape Town as base for Antarctic operations.

A modern and indigenously built station 'Maitri' established in Schirmacher Oasis in 1988 has replaced the first Indian station, Dakshin Gangotri which was established on the ice-shelf in 1984. Maitri is equipped to provide comfortable living facilities for 25 persons on a year round basis and has eight permanent observatories and several laboratories to carry out research in the frontier areas of Antarctic Science. So far, thirteen technical reports have been published and over 300 scientific papers have been published in various national and international journals.

The main objectives of the Indian Antarctic Program are as follows:

* The Antarctic mission objectives is to plan, promote, co-ordinate and execute the entire gamut of polar science and logistic activities of the country, in order to ensure a perceptible and influential presence of India in Antarctica.

* Uphold strategic interests in the global framework of nations in the southern continent and the surrounding oceans expressed through our Consultative status in the Antarctic Treaty.

* As a treaty obligation, demonstrate India's sustained interest in Antarctica by conducting substantial scientific activities, such as the establishment of a scientific station or the dispatch of annual scientific expeditions.

* Accordingly, pursue a scientific work plan in consonance with our long-term science strategy which is aimed towards addressing issues pertinent to our national needs and those which have global relevance.

The success of the Antarctic Programme and our sustained capabilities in Antarctic science and logistics prompted the department to establish the first polar research lab of the country at Goa namely the National Centre for Antarctic & Ocean Research (NCAOR), functioning as an autonomous Society since 1998. This Centre has a specific R & D mandate in the realms of polar science and to coordinate and launch Indian Antarctic expeditions. When fully operational, it will have a unique laboratory for low temperature research on ice cores retrieved from Antarctica and the Himalayas. It will also have the facility for the application of remote sensing techniques aimed to understand the sea-ice-atmosphere interaction in the Polar Regions. It will also have an Antarctic museum and a database repository on polar sciences. India is presently having bilateral cooperation in polar sciences with several Treaty nations. An Iranian scientist participated in the XVIII Indian Expedition to Antarctica and a lady geologist from Peru in the XIX expedition. Another Indian scientist from Fishery Survey of India is participating in the Peruvian expedition to the Antarctic waters for krill resources assessment from January 2000. Two German scientists are participating in the XX expedition.

5.2 Delineation of Outer Limits of Continental Shelf

Comprehensive desktop study of the data sources available to determine the scope of the Project, the type of data to be collected and development of a data acquisition program designed to maximize and sustain India's legal continental shelf claim was undertaken . In addition, NHO Coordinated the compilation of the available baseline and bathymetric data so as to generate a base map of the project area defining the various marine jurisdictional zones as the EEZ, 350M limits, the 2500 m isobath and the foot of the continental slope (FOS). The work program to be undertaken this year would include acquisition, processing and analysis of seismic data in Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal and Indian Ocean with participation from Geological Survey of India, National Institute of Oceanography, National Geophysical Research Institute etc and preparation of maps, reports etc in the required format as per the Guidelines of the Commission for submission of claims.

5.3 Marine Living Resources

Assessment of Marine Living Resource

The programme envisage comprehensive coverage of the Marine living Resources of the Indian EEZ and studies on the influence of the marine environment on MLR. Towards this, environment and productivity patterns of the Indian EEZ are monitored for the summar monsoon (June- mid October), winter monsoon ( late October - end Feb) and inter monsoon (March- May) periods along identified transects of the West and East coasts and also the Andaman sea. Environmental parameters that are routinely collected are; SST, vertical temperature- salinity profiles, dissolved Oxygen and nutrients. Productivity parameters are estimated at selected in-situ stations by C14 techniques. Stratified estimates of secondary production are done by using Multiple Plankton Sampler. The MLR project on Benthic productivity attempts to develop for the first time the bench mark information on the distribution of benthos for the entire shelf waters of the Indian EEZ. This will help to assess the impact of bottom trawling on the marine benthos. The MLR project on Toxic algal blooms envisage identification of the harmful algae and studies on the distribution, cause-effect of harmful blooms and impact on other marine organisms with a view to develop predictive models to explain occurrence of such blooms in the Indian EEZ. This is the first study of its kind in the Indian waters. Similarly, the MLR project on 'Assessment of fishery resources along the continental slope' is the first attempt to assess the demersel fishery resources from the 200 - 1000m depths of our EEZ. The DSL nektons which form a potential resource are being studied under the project 'Studies on DSL'. Development of appropriate harvesting technologies for deep sea demersel fishes are carried out under the MLR project on 'Harvest Technology'

Drugs from the Sea

The National Project on Drugs from Sea is a multi- institutional project aiming at developing potential drugs and chemical from the marine flora and fauna. This project has led to identification of five marine organisms showing potent activity as anti- diabetic, anti- viral, anti-anxiety, anti- cholesterol and larvicidal agents for developing new drugs during the IX Plan. In order to focus on product development and exploratory work, the project has been extended for another two years from 2000-01 onwards.

5.4 Marine Non-Living Resources

The Polymetallic Nodules programme envisages eventual exploitation of the nodules from the allotted 150,000 sq. km. mine site in the Central Indian Ocean Basin. As per an international commitment to the International Seabed Authority, India has to relinquish 50% of the total area assigned, after detailed survey and exploration and retain the remaining 50% for future exploration and exploitation. India is a member of the Council of International Seabed Authority, under the Investor's category owing to its contribution and commitment to the Polymetallic Nodules Programme. India's nominees are also on the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, Legal & Technical Commission of the Council, Finance Committee of the Authority and the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf.

The Survey & Exploration endeavour is aimed at firmly establishing the resource potential on the basis of progressive closer grids sampling, spot photographs. Topographs of the pioneer area have already been assessed. The abundance pattern vis--vis the geomorphology has been established along with upgradation of the resource evaluation techniques on the basis of one lakh photographs obtained from the mine site. Three moored systems deployed in the pioneer area obtained continuous time series oceanographic data. The analysis of the data revealed the environmental condition at various depths over a period of time in the pioneer area of the Central Indian Ocean Basin. India has already relinquished 30% of the surveyed area of ISBA. Sampling at 5 km. grid interval in about 40 marginal blocks is proposed for the finalisation of 20% of the relinquishment.

A comprehensive Environmental Impact Assessment study as a result of potential exploitation of nodules has been undertaken at the pioneer area. After obtaining baseline environmental data on the sea bottom and the water column in identified area, benthic disturbance simulating mining of nodules was done using specialised equipment and immediate impact and pattern of restoration estimates. A detailed report of the impact was prepared. As a part of continuation of EIA study, monitoring of identified parameters in the identified areas shall be undertaken.

Development of technologies for mining from the deep ocean is viewed as a contribution to the long-term objective. In 1996, India reoriented its polymetallic nodule development programmes to establish the technologies in a phased manner with the initial efforts to demonstrate shallow bed mining technology in Indian seas up to 500 m depth. Successful development of this mining technology could find applications in the exploration of sulphides, phosphorites, placer deposits and other seabed minerals in the Exclusive Economic Zone of India.

To further develop the technology for nodule mining at greater depths, a joint technology development agreement was concluded between National Institute of Ocean Technology (NIOT) of DOD and University of Siegen (IKS), Germany in January, 1998. Under this, it is proposed to demonstrate shallow bed mining technology up to 500 m depth in Indian waters. For this purpose, the existing crawler has been refurbished with a cutting system, a manipulator and a pumping system. Preliminary tests were done on board the vessel ORV Sagar Kanya during October - November, 1998 off Malvan coast near Goa. The crawler was launched and retrieved successfully as a part of soak test at a depth of 50 m. Two subsequent tests in March, 2000 and September, 2000 at 410 m and 32 m demonstrated collection/ pumping of silt and maneuverability respectively. Upon completion of the shallow bed mining test, a joint report containing the design of various system launching and retrieval system, etc. required for deep sea nodule mining would be prepared. A mining system capable of operating at 6000 m depth with a mining capacity of 25,000 tonnes nodules per year has also been designed under the joint collaborative effort.

The improved Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) capable of operating up to 250 m depth designed and fabricated by Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute (CMERI), Durgapur, was tested in the sea off Chennai coast at 40 m depth. The upgraded ROV is now ready for testing at 250 m depth in the open sea. The underwater manipulator for 250 m has been developed for integration with ROV. A 1:4 model jet pump test facility has been fabricated. The fabrication and testing of both connector and thruster are progressing and expected to be completed soon.

At HZL (U), batch scale experiments are conducted for firming the process package. The process route at RRL (B) has been chosen for testing on a continuous demonstration plant of 500 kg. per day capacity. The downstream extraction for Nickel and Cobalt for this process has been developed and demonstrated at BARC, Mumbai.

Basic engineering & designs for a continuous demonstration pilot plant to process 500 kg/ day of the polymetallic nodules from Indian mine site has been completed. This pilot plant is being set up at Hindustan Zinc Ltd., Udaipur with the active participation of HZL (U) who will also partially finance the programme and be responsible to commission, maintain and operate the pilot plant during the trials for evaluation and optimisation of the process to generate parameters for techno-economic studies. The pilot plant is expected to be commissioned during May, 2001.

5.5 Marine and Coastal Area Management

Coastal Ocean Monitoring & Prediction Systems (COMAPS)

Due to multipurpose uses of the coastal zone such as shipping, fishing, tourism, industrialisation and disposal of wastes, the stress on the coastal area is growing rapidly with developments taking place often in an unplanned fashion and unmindful of long term consequences. COMAPS is designed to assess the status and likely trends in coastal marine environment quality and to contribute directly to the development of strategies for maximizing the economic benefits derived from the intelligent and sustainable use of marine environment and resources. Coastal Ocean Monitoring and Prediction System (COMAPS) is a continuing programme since 1991, for monitoring the level of various marine pollutants and its impacts on marine fauna and flora of the country. Data collected through this programme are essential to formulate remedial measures to protect health of our marine environment. Depending upon the level and source of pollutants 82 sampling stations have been chosen and classified as "Hot spot" and "Regular" stations. Data on 25 environmental parameters including pesticides, heavy metals and other pollution indicating parameters like dissolved oxygen, pathogenic bacterial are being monitored. Intensive monitoring of 12 hotspots, four times in a year, is envisaged under the COMAPS programme. The infrastructure and other facilities of National and State Research and Development institutions which are participating in the programme have been fully strengthened to undertake all activities stipulated for this programme. The results emerging through these studies have shown that our coastal waters are by and large clean. The data collected are also reported to coastal State Pollution Control Boards. It appears that the organized industry is slowly disciplining itself in following proper environmental standards.

Coastal Research Vessels

The coastal research vessels are essential to ensure coverage of sea areas at desired location for sampling towards monitoring of pollution and to facilitate systematic on board analysis of samples collected. The facilities established onboard the vessels were highly useful for analyzing most of the parameters. National Institute of Ocean Technology, Chennai is successfully managing these vessels. So far both the vessels have completed 136 cruises. Apart from that the vessel, "Sagar Purvi" served as a testing platform for the Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) developed by Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute, Durgapur under Polymetallic Nodules Programme and other programmes of Department of Ocean Development/NIOT.

Integrated Coastal and Marine Area Management (ICMAM)

ICMAM is a new activity started during the 9th Plan period. Capacity building component of the ICMAM has achieved the development of GIS based information system for 4 locations, namely, Pichavaram, Kadamar, Karwar and Gulf of Mannar. It has progressed in the Determination of Waste Assimilation Capacity for Ennore and Tapi areas. The EIA guidelines for Ports and harbours have been developed. Various key issues and problems required to be addressed in the model ICMAM Plans of Goa, Chennai and Gulf of Kachchh have been identified.

5.6 Ocean Observation & Information Services (OOIS)

Towards providing better services in the coastal and Ocean sectors, the scheme `Ocean Observation & Information Services' was launched in 1997-98 by restructuring and integrating the schemes such as Marine Satellite Information Services (MARSIS), Sea Level Modelling and Monitoring (SELMAM), Joint Global Flux Study (JGOFS), National Data Buoy project and National Ocean Information System (NOIS) implemented during 8th Plan. The scheme consists of four major components viz. Ocean Observing Systems, Ocean Information Services, Satellite Coastal Oceanographic Research and Ocean Dynamics and Modelling. The Ocean observing system is an integral part of OOIS scheme primarily for generation of systematic, scientific and long-term data of oceanographic and meteorological parameters by deployment of state-art-of the technology instruments i.e. Met- Ocean moored buoys, drfiting buoys, XBT's, Current meter array, tide-gauges. The OOS scheme consists of the following projects:

However, in the 9th plan, as per the recommendations of Group of Experts a comprehensive programme is undertaken by the department to meet the requirements of ocean observations. This programme would be executed by National Institute of Oceanography, Goa. It is envisaged to deploy 48 drifting buoys at periodical intervals during the course of this project. The primary objective of this besides generating the in-situ data, is to validate the satellite data for operational use. Three current meter arrays would be deployed along the equator at 53deg E, 73deg E and 93deg E. For monitoring the upper ocean thermal structure in the Indian Ocean about 900 XBT probes would also be deployed along the shipping lane Madras-Andaman-Calcutta and Bombay-Mauritius. Special campaigns for validation of data obtained from satellite sensors would also be carried out.

Ocean Information Services is being implemented for providing services, such as coastal and ocean data and value added data products to the users. In order to effectively generate ocean data products and disseminate them on operational basis, Department is setting up a dedicated Ocean Information Services (OIS) at Hyderabad. The objectives of the OIS programme are (I) generation and dissemination of near real time data and data products such as Sea Surface Temperature (SST) and Potential Fishing Zone advisories, upwelling zones, maps, eddies, chlorophyll, suspended sediment load etc., (ii) provide need based ocean information consultancy services to the corporate sector industries, States, central government. The marine data centres (MDCs), which was set-up under DOD's NOIS programme, are merged with OIS.

The INDOMOD project envisages development of a suite of wide range ocean models to meet mainly the requirement of operation ocean state forecast. Further, under this programme models are being developed which can assimilate the data generated under OOS to improve ocean state forecast. In addition, the models would improve prediction of Indian monsoon, prediction of storm surge associated with tropical cyclone, wave prediction, coastal and estuarine processes, biogeochemical models etc., The institutes associated in this endeavour are Centre for Mathematical Modelling and Computer Stimulation (CMMACS), National Institute of Oceanography (NIO), Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM), Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi (IIT-D) and Cochin University. Since remote sensing data would be vital for OOIS, the programme SATCORE is being implemented by SAC, Ahmedabad to develop retrieval algorithms from Indian and foreign satellites. The main objective is to develop regional algorithms and models for retrieval of coastal, oceanic and meteorological parameters of interest from the available/new satellite sensors. Fine-tuning and conversion to software packages for operational/semi-operational use in the OIS is being carried out.

5.7 Marine Research and Capacity Building

The Scientific Research and Technology Development programmes for exploration and sustained use of the marine resources are multi-disciplinary and multi-institutional. Basic research and developments are required in a wide spectrum of areas to gain adequate knowledge and expertise. Required infrastructure and trained manpower are essential for successfully implementing different programmes. There is a need for effective interaction between R&D institutions, academic and industries.

The Department has been implementing this programme with a view to encouraging research in the newly emerging and frontline areas of Marine Chemistry, Marine Biology and Microbiology, Coastal Zone management, Marine Archaeology, Exploration and Exploitation of Marine Resources, etc., to create infrastructure facilities in Universities/Institutions/Organizations, etc., and to generate specialist Manpower in Ocean Sector.

The research projects so far funded under this programme have provided useful results on the history of the sedimentation process; tectonic events before Miocene period including Himalayan drift; physical, chemical and biological oceanography of our sea; provided clues for development of potential drugs and chemicals from the marine organisms; etc. A large number of scientific papers on various aspects of ocean science and technology have so far been published. Over 120 fellowships awarded to young scientists for pursuing higher studies in the ocean sector have helped augment the manpower resources, capacity building and improving the scope for further research in marine sciences.

With a view to have a coordinated approach to promote specialties in various aspects of marine science in different universities, the department formulated a scheme for establishing Ocean Science & Technology Cells (OSTC) in consultation with the Vice Chancellors of Universities engaged in research in marine Science. These cells will grow into Centres of Excellence in the academic institutions in due course. Within the University system, OSTC is planned to function with certain autonomy under the guidance and direction of a Management Board with respective Vice Chancellor as Chairman and eminent scientists and technologists and officials of the Department as Members.

To have an integrated approach for promoting basic research in marine science and establishing centres of excellence in academic institutions developing human resource for the challenging needs in marine sector and for self reliance, a perspective planning is essential.

During the first three years of the 9th Plan period the Department has established 9 OSTCs. They are:

Marine Coastal Ecology - East Coast at Berhampur University
Marine Coastal Ecology - West Coast at Bhavnagar University
Marine Microbiology at Goa University
Marine Geology & Geophysics at Mangalore University
Coastal Marine Culture Systems at Andhra University
Marine Biology at Annamalai University
Beach Placers at Tamil University
Marine Benthos at Cochin University of Science and Technology
Ocean Engineering & Underwater Robotics at IIT, Kharagpur


5.8 National Institute of Ocean Technology

National Institute of Ocean Technology (NIOT) was established by the Department of Ocean Development (DOD), Government of India in co-ordination with IIT, Chennai. NIOT is an autonomous institute fully funded by DOD. The main aim of NIOT is to develop and promote technology in mission mode for specific purposes in ocean related areas. NIOT is serving as the technical arm of DOD, through a pool of highly trained manpower by taking up technology development and demonstration projects in major areas of ocean technology.

The main mission areas initially identified with the available expertise and facilities within NIOT and IIT, Chennai are as follows:

* Ocean Energy

* Deep Sea Technology and Ocean Mining

* Coastal and Environmental Engineering

* Marine Instrumentation

Subsequently, DOD entrusted to NIOT the implementation of the National Data Buoy Programme (NDBP), operation of the Coastal Research Vessels (CRV) and participation in the Integrated Coastal and Marine Area Management programme (ICMAM). A new mission area on Ocean Science & Technology for Islands has been added to NIOT in 1998. The core staff consisting of Engineers and Scientists from Mechanical, Civil, Electrical/Electronics, Environmental & Ocean Engineering, Ocean Sciences are responsible for implementing the above programmes.

NIOT is located in a new campus in a 50 acre land at Narayanapuram, Chennai. This campus houses facilities for handling hardware for seabed mining programme, OTEC and other mission areas of NIOT, ecotoxic laboratory and training facilities for ICMAM programme, etc.

Mission-1: Ocean Energy

One of the broad mission areas of NIOT is harnessing different forms of energy from the ocean. Currently wave energy and ocean thermal energy conversions are the main focus at NIOT.

NIOT took over the wave energy project from IIT, Chennai towards the end of 1995. The wave energy plant at Vizhinjam, Kerala incorporates an Oscillating Water Column (OWC) and a horizontal axis twin turbine. Subsequently to increase the dynamic range of the turbine, an impulse turbine with self-pitched guide vanes was commissioned. It has been observed that this turbine has a superior performance compared to Wells' turbine. Laboratory studies are underway to design a floating type of oscillating water column called Backward Bent Ducted Buoy. The preliminary results have paved the way for designing a wave powered navigational buoy.

Preliminary studies have also been conducted on harnessing ocean energy using the principle of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC). A site on the East Coast of India has been chosen as the location of this pilot OTEC plant. Currently designs are underway to establish a 1 MW floating OTEC demonstration plant consisting of a barge supporting the cold water pipe and other components for the sea water systems and power plant. The pilot plant is expected to be commissioned off Kulasekharapatnam off Tuticorin along Tamil nadu coast.

Mission-2: Deep Sea Technology and Ocean Mining

The main objective of this mission is to develop/acquire technology that leads to commercial mining of polymetallic nodules from the central Indian Ocean basin. NIOT is involved in design and development of other systems and accessories like underwater inspection vehicle, underwater manipulator, underwater thruster and underwater connector.

NIOT and Institute of Design (IKS), University of Siegen, Germany have jointly undertaken the development of the integrated mining system in a phased manner with the preparation of a detailed technical report. Under this programme, the crawler mounted mining system developed by IKS and NIOT was tested at a depth of 410 m for slurry pumping.

Mission-3: Coastal and Environmental Engineering

This group supports and provides engineering inputs for the better utilisation and management of coastal resources. The diverse nature of this field has activities ranging from a design of a seawall to environment control measures. This group supports the collection and presentation of oceanographic data for feasibility studies of Ports and Harbours.

Based on the laboratory model tests, NIOT is developing software for the analysis of floating breakwater.

The baseline data collected for aqua farms are being used along with in- house water quality models towards achieving sustainable development technologies. Apart from this, computer models and field studies are being carried out for nearshore wave transformation, sediment transport and deposition at the mouths of Pulicat Lake and Cooum River. Numerical models are being developed to predict storm surge and associated inland flooding as sponsored an in-house projects.

Sponsored programmes on measurement of physical and environmental conditions, studies on detached breakwaters and environmental impact assessment, drainage and coastal inlet studies for NTPC, Feasibility Studies on Coal Transport logistics and development of marine facilities for NTPC power plant at Cheyyur, Sea bed and hydrographic investigations for GPLNG to lay sub marine pipelines across the Gulf of Khambhat, Numerical model studies for development of Fishing Harbour at Thengapatnam, Environmental Impact and Risk Assessment Studies for Van Ommeren MAC Tank Terminals Ltd, Coast Guard and Indian Navy, Modelling of Dredge Spoil Disposal for Gujarat Pipavav Port Ltd, Modelling of watershed sediment erosion for RITES, modelling for water quality issue related to ICMAM etc have been taken up. Surveys for hydrographic component of the COMAPS Programme and preparation of draft EIA guidelines for Ports & Harbours, have been completed.

Building up of coastal and oceanographic data base using Vessel Management Cell at NIOT, development of applications of Remote Sensing and GIS for coastal and ocean engineering studies, research on shore protection measures and modelling and monitoring of coastal pollution are also envisaged.

Mission-4: Marine Instrumentation

The group is involved in the development of instruments for marine use. The group has expertise in underwater acoustics, acoustic based instrumentation, materials for acoustic transducers, transducer calibration and signal processing. An Acoustic Test Facility (ATF) for the calibration of underwater acoustic transducers will be established at the new NIOT campus being developed.

NIOT has successfully developed an Acoustic Tide Gauge (ATG) with accuracy better than 1 cm, which is suited for marine environment. ATG and the analog electronic hardware have been tested at Chennai port. Acoustic Tide Gauges with battery back up and telemetry option were fabricated and deployed at Kochi, Mumbai, A&N Islands in India and in Vietnam.

NIOT is implementing a project with NIO, Goa to develop a portable surface-skimming platform, which can be remotely controlled from a ship or shore.

A project to develop a portable current meter has been entrusted with the Ocean Engineering Centre, IITM employing the principle of a 3-component multi- layer Perforated Ball Velocity Meter.

An acoustic sub-bottom profiler is being developed indigenously for coastal area research. The individual components of the system such as transducers, electronic assembly and the software for signal processing and image processing are being developed in this project.

A transducer for Echosounder with frequency operation of 33 kHz and beam width of 20o for IUSS Project and processing software / control electronic hardware for Echosounder - IUSS, have been developed. Development of 12 kHz omni directional transceiver for Pinger and Acoustic Release system initially for 300m depth and subsequently for operation up to a depth of 6000m was taken up. A feasibility study has been taken up on freshness index meter for fish meat to detect ammonia and TMA/DMA gases. Development of Portable Digital current meter for field operation from a laboratory model has also been taken up. The instrumentation group also proposes to develop an integrated system consisting of a sub-bottom profiler and a side scan sonar.

For carrying out underwater inspection, CMERI, Durgapur is developing a remotely operable vehicle (ROV) capable of operating up to 300 m water depth.

Design and Development of an underwater robotic arm with a payload capacity of 2 kg and four degrees of freedom suitable for underwater operations like sample collection, picking of objects etc., was undertaken by NIOT with technical cooperation from M/s. Systematics India Ltd. Bangalore with the funding from NIOT. The arm will be mounted on the ROV developed by CMERI.

FORV Sagar Sampada and ORV Sagar Kanya

The vessels fitted with all modern facilities and research equipment to undertake advanced research in marine sector, were fully utilized to meet the requirements of Department's programme during 2000-01. The vessels will be utilized fully towards the planned programmes during 2001-02, as well.

CHAPTER VI
Summary of Financial Requirements


CLICK HERE

CHAPTER VII
Explanation of Financial Requirements for 2001-02



POLAR SCIENCE (ANTARCTIC RESEARCH) PROGRAMME

During 2001-2002 the XXI India Antarctic Expedition will be launched for achieving a part of the long term scientific objectives as laid down in the 9th Five Year Plan programmes of the Department. The activities are proposed to be continued in the area of geology, atmospheric sciences, biological sciences etc., as already explained in Chapter IV. The National Centre for Antarctic & Ocean Research (NCAOR) at Goa, which is the nodal agency for implementing the programme, will further expand with facilities for carrying out research in polar science and southern ocean oceanography.

In order to continue the scientific activities and maintain the station, it would be necessary to continue the chartering of the ice-breaker and helicopters along with other logistic activities in the station for which about Rs.20.00 crore are estimated to be required during 2001-2002. For the day-to- day running of NCAOR including the Phase-II civil works, and for its in-house R&D activities in the various realms of Polar Sciences and Oceanography, augmentation of the infrastructural facilities and development of core competence in the different disciplines, an estimated outlay of Rs.4.00 crore is essential. In addition, a sum of Rs. 3.00 crore is proposed for the initiation of research programmes at the Dr. Kedareswar Banerjee Centre for Atmospheric and Ocean Studies at the Allahabad University.

DELINEATION OF OUTER LIMITS OF CONTINENTAL SHELF

During the year 2001-2002, it is proposed to award the work of the tendered marine geophysical surveys and to commence the work which will underpin India's submission to establish the precise outer limits of the continental margin as per the UNCLOS provisions. The sum of Rs.43.00 crore proposed for this purpose is therefore very much essential.

MARINE LIVING RESOURCES

A. Drugs from the Sea

The programme has entered the extended 3rd Phase in order to take up release of new drugs developed from marine flora and fauna. The National Project has been re-oriented with a focus on Exploratory and Product Development activities. The project has gained momentum with pre- clinical trials of the anti- diabetic and anti- diarrhoeal preparations already completed in rates and hence the extension. The outlay of Rs 2.00 cores proposed for 2001-02, therefore is very much essential.

B. Assessment of Marine Living Resources: The budget requirement of the MLR programme during 2001-02 is Rs.2.00 crore. Of this, the grant-in-aid component is Rs.1.7 crore and the component towards 'Other Contractual Services' is Rs.0.30 crore. The Grant-in-aid component is towards payment of the approved grants 2001-02 for the MLR projects as indicated above. The provision of Rs.0.30 crore under contractual services is to meet expenses on account of MLR activities being carried out at Fishery Survey of India and at SSC, Kochi

NON-LIVING RESOURCES

Polymetallic Nodules Programme

The Polymetallic Nodule (PMN) Programme consists of the following basic components:

1. Survey & Exploration in the Central Indian Ocean Basin (CIOB)

2. Environmental Impact Assessment

3. Technology Development (Mining)

4. Technology Development (Metallurgy)

The outlay of Rs.17.30 crore is very much essential for 2000-01.

MARINE AND COASTAL AREA MANAGEMENT

A. Coastal Ocean Monitoring & Prediction Systems (COMAPS)

The programme, which is long-term in nature reveals the health of our ocean. Since the health of the ocean is to be assessed periodically to take control/remedial measures, it is necessary to continue the programme in the year 2001-02 also, without any change in the scope or content of the programme as approved by the Government.

For this purpose, during 2001-02, an outlay of Rs. 4.70 crore is the essential requirement.

B. Coastal Research Vessels

The Vessels - CRV Sagar Purvi and Sagar Paschimi - are mandatory requirements for onboard collection and analyses of the samples collected from 82 sampling points under the COMAPS programme. These two vessels are also used for other coastal research and survey programmes of DOD. In order to meet the ship time requirements for all scientific investigations it is necessary to operate and maintain these vessels for which an amount of Rs.2.50 crore is necessary for the year 2001-2002.

C. Integrated Coastal and Marine Area Management (ICMAM)

The ICMAM Programme has 2 components, namely, Capacity Building funded by the World Bank and Long-term R&D funded by the DOD. During the year 2001 - 2002, it is proposed to complete the task of development of GIS based information system for 4 out of 7 remaining habitats. The task of Determination of Waste Assimilation Capacity for Ennore and Tapi will be completed and similar task for Hooghly estuary will be taken up. EIA guidelines for waste disposal and tourism will be developed. The field exercises on collection of data for ICMAM Plan areas of Chennai, Goa and Gulf of Kachchh will be initiated. A draft Decision Support System for Chennai will be developed. Regarding R&D infrastructure activities, draft Useclassification for 3 coastal areas and a draft No Impact Zone for Pulicat lake will also be determined. A training programme on application of GIS for critical habitats will be initiated.

OCEAN OBSERVATION & INFORMATION SERVICES

Under Ocean Observing System component, indigenisation of data buoy technology, operation and maintenance of 12 data buoy system by National Data Buoy Programme, continuation of operation of tide gauge network., redeployment of existing current meter and deployment of new current meter array along the equator, deployment of 10 drifting buoys for acquiring the surface meteorological and upper ocean parameters, validation campaigns of IRS-P4 satellite data, conducting XBT cruises for obtaining temperature profiles for estimation of heat budget in the upper layers in the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea etc., would be carried out.

Under Ocean Information Service setting up of infrastructure for Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services (INCOIS), continuation of the generation of SST and dissemination of PFZ forecasts, operation and maintenance of Marine Data Centres, operation of models developed by SAC for data generation, archival and dissemination of data from the marine data centres, etc are the major activities proposed for 2001.02.

Under the Component Satellite Coastal & Oceanographic Research, development of version I and II software for retrieval of ocean parameters using remote sensing satellites and R&D activities will be continued. Data assimilation models for short- and long-term forecasts would continue to be generated and validated.

Validation and sensitivity test for the coupled model for Indian monsoon; coupled ocean atmospheric model for prediction of tropical cyclones and associated surges; wave prediction model; ocean circulation model; joint global ocean flux studies, etc., are proposed to be taken up. In addition synthesis of time series sediment trap data and development of budget models for estimation of fluxes of carbon and nitrogen along the continental margin of the west coast of India and quantification of fluxes of various elements in the Godavari basin region and Joint Global Flux Studies for estimation of elemental fluxes in Bay of Bengal, would also be taken up during 2001.02 under Ocean Dynamics and Modelling component.

For taking up all these programmes, a sum of Rs. 19.70 crore is proposed for 2001.02.

MARINE RESEARCH AND CAPACITY BUILDING & MANPOWER TRAINING

While it is essential to understood the oceanic processes in entirely, various biological, geological and ecological aspects are yet to be understood. The basic and applied research in ocean sciences needs to be encouraged. With the formation of OSTCs in various Universities, the promotions of front- ranking research in Ocean Science & Technology would be facilitated. In order to crate Centres of Excellence, the research projects in the identified fields needs to be adequately funded, facilities created with creation of a strong and skilled human resources base.

For this purpose, the outlay of Rs 5.60 crores during 2001-02 is fully justified.

COASTAL COMMUNITY PROGRAMME

OCEAN AWARENESS

With a view to enhancing the knowledge of the general public regarding the oceans around India and to highlight India's efforts in the endeavor to explore and exploit these resources for sustainable growth, the Department would continue to participate in variety of fairs/ exhibitions. Department would also provide funding for organizing seminars, conferences, workshops, etc. for creation of public awareness on oceans. The Department would also enhance its existing IT infrastructure.

Budget allocation of Rs 0.80 crores would be required for this purpose.

INTERNATIONAL CO-OPERATION

Department would continue to represent India in various International & Intergovernmental organizations/bodies such as Antarctic Treaty System, Scientific committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR), Council of Managers of National Antarctic Programmes (COMNAP), Standing Committee on Antarctic Logistic Operations (SCALOP), Commission for Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR), Intergovernmental Oceanography Commission (IOC), Regional Seas Programme, International Sea Bed Authority and International Tribunal on Law of the Sea.

Budget allocation of Rs 0.70 crores would be required for this purpose.

NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF OCEAN TECHNOLOGY

The following are the major activities proposed to be carried out during 2001-2002 under the four mission areas.

Mission-I Ocean Energy

* Studies on 1 MW OTEC plant and preparation of final report on the pilot scale demonstration of technology for 1 MW OTEC plant.

* Commissioning of desalination plant at Vizhinjam.

* Feasibility studies on OTEC plant at islands.

Mission-II Deep sea technologies and Ocean Mining

* Qualification of collector and crusher system

* Insitu measurement of soil properties at Indian nodule mining site at 6000 metre water depth

* Mining applications development using underwater crawler vehicle

* Studies on pressure losses in hoses with S shaped profile

* Development of Underwater connector

* Development of underwater thrusters

* Development of Smart solids handling jet pump

* Design of Hyperbaric chamber

. Mission-III Coastal and Environmental Engineering

* Monitoring the sand bar formation at the mouth of Cooum consequent to ongoing construction of groins.

* Tranquillity studies for the II Phase development of Ennore Port

* Field and numerical studies for the coastal zone management of the stretch between Chennai port and Ennore port and to study the impact of new harbour.

* Water quality monitoring of area north of Ennore port including Pulicat lake.

* Hydrodynamic modelling of sediment movement along the Sogal Channel of Kandla Port and the conceptual design of civil structures to minimise siltation

* EIA studies for the expansion of Ninth cargo berth and other facilities at Kandla Port

* WLA studies at Hooghly waterways

* Monitoring of sediment movement in the Pilot launch basin of Sagar islands

* Field monitoring study of sand bar at Ennore creek mouth and numerical modelling of water quality and sedimentation at Ennore creek

* Development of geotechnical and geophysical facilities for use in different marine field projects.

Mission-IV Marine Instrumentation

* Development of second generation State-of-the-art Acoustic Tide Gauges.

* Development of Echo-sounder / Acoustic Sub-bottom Profiler with tow fish for IUSS project and design of the Tow Body.

* Development of Prototype Acoustic Sub-system Profiler transducer with improved band width (2-16 kHz).

* Development of prototype 2-16 kHz Magneto-restrictive transducers for oceanographic applications.

* Continuation of development of 12 kHz transceiver for Pinger system for deep- water operations.

* Complete development of the deep-water prototype Acoustic Pinger system.

* Establishment of Test and Calibration procedure for underwater transducers and the implementation of any additional instrumentation required.

For carrying out these activities, a sum of Rs.10.80 crore is very much essential.

National Data Buoy Programme

The fund sought is for the current ongoing National Data Buoy Programme as well for 12 more data buoys to be indigenously produced.

ADMINISTRATIVE SUPPORT & INFRASTRUCTURE

Initiation of the process for filling up of the vacant posts and creation of approved additional posts and provision of the requisite infrastructure support to the Department and its attached offices for reviewing, implementing and monitoring various approved plan programmes, will be the major activities proposed in 2001-02.

For this purpose, an outlay of Rs. 1.50 crore provided for in 2001-02, is justifiable.

NON-PLAN

EXPLORATION AND ASSESSMENT OF LIVING AND NON-LIVING RESOURCES


FORV Sagar Sampada: The budget requirements for 2001-02 is Rs.13.12 Crores of which Rs.1.5 crore is under the plan scheme and Rs.11.62 crore is under non-plan scheme. Under the plan scheme a provision of Rs.0.9 crore is required to meet expenditures on salary, wages, travel, office expenses, publications, other administrative expenses, information technology and machinery and equipment of the FORV shore station i.e. Sagar Sampada Cell, Kochi which is an attached office of the Department. A provision of Rs.0.60 crore under Capital Head towards construction of office for the Sagar Sampada Cell. Under the non-plan head the projected requirement of Rs.11.62 crores is the running and maintenance of the research vessel FORV Sagar Sampada.

ORV Sagar Kanya: An allocation of Rs.12.00 crore and Rs.9.00 crore made for operation and management of ORV Sagar Kanya and FORV Sagar Sampada, respectively, during 2000-01, is the barest minimum.



THE END