Adoption of the framework of ICMAM is the most appropriate way to achieve the
ecological balance and sustainable economic development in coastal areas faced with
rapid industrialisation, tourism and huge influx of masses from inland areas. ICMAM
involves comprehensive assessment and setting of objectives, planning and
management of coastal areas and resources, taking into account traditional, cultural and
historical perspectives and conflicting interests & uses.
In line with these objectives, during the 9th Plan period, the DOD has taken up
for implementation infrastructure development and capacity building activities to facilitate
adoption of the concept of ICMAM in the coming years. These activities focus on
development of expertise in ICMAM oriented activities, and dissemination of knowledge
gained to the users like coastal states through organised training programmes.
As a first step towards this, the Department established a ICMAM Project
Directorate at Chennai during 1997-98, which has identified and implementing various
activities as planned in the following main areas from 1998-99.
This component is funded by the World Bank in the form of a International
Development Association (IDA) credit under the project ‘Environment Management
Capacity Building’ which is coordinated by the Ministry of Environment and Forests.
The capacity building activities are being carried in the following areas:
Development of GIS based information system for 11 critical habitats containing
all information necessary to prepare management plans.
Determination of waste load allocation based on waste assimilation
characteristics of selected estuaries (Tapi estuary and Ennore creek)
Development of EIA guidelines for major coastal developmental activities and
Development of model ICMAM plans for Chennai, Goa and Gulf of Katchchh
The details of activities carried out during the year 1999-2000 under the above
projects are given below:
5.3.1 Development of GIS Based Information System for Critical Habitats
Under this project, it is proposed to develop an information system useful for the
management of critical habitats like mangroves, coral reefs, areas rich in biodiversity etc.
The information system will be made using tools like Geographical Information System
(GIS) which is also used as Decision Support System (DSS) in the management of
these critical habitats. The tasks involved are: collection of data and information in the
11 critical habitats namely, Gulf of Khambat, Gulf of Kutch, Malvan, 5 islands off Karwar,
3 islands off Cochin, Gulf of Mannar, Pitchavaram, Coringa mangrove, Gahirmata,
Sunderbans and Kadamat (Lakshadweep) and designing of a database for integration in
the GIS software like ARC INFO and ARC VIEW. The data and information are
collected for each habitat are given below :
The work to be carried up to the year 1999-2000 include collection of secondary
and primary data on all the above habitats, designing of a data base and information
system using remote sensing and GIS and preparation of draft information system at
least for 3 habitats up to the period March 2000. The progress made include completion
of collection of data in all the 11 habitats for 3 seasons and design of a data base and
information system. The data collected are being fed in the database. A draft GIS for
Pichavaram mangrove area has been completed and being refined. Similar information
system is also being done for Karwar and Kadamat. The task relating to development of
information system for other habitats like Gulf of Mannar has been initiated during this
year. The draft information system developed for Pichavaram mangrove will be
discussed with the users and the task relating to development of management system
will be initiated during the current year.
5.3.2 Determination of Waste Assimilation Capacity in Ennore Creek and Coastal
Waters and Tapi Estuary
In order to take measures for control of marine pollution from the land based
activities, it is necessary to know the information relating to assimilative capacity of
coastal waters. This helps in deciding the amount of pollutants that can be permitted to
be discharged in the coastal waters. Such a method is adopted in countries like USA.
In order to apply this consent in pollution control measures in India, capacity building
exercises on Determination of Waste Assimilation Capacity (WAC) is proposed to be
undertaken. The task of Determination of WAC will be carried out for Tapi estuary and
Ennore creek and coastal waters as model areas. Since such a task is being attempted
for the first time, technical advice and assistance will be taken from M/s.Limno-Tech,
USA who will determine the WAC for Tapi estuary (Gujarat) and advise National Institute
of Ocean technology (NIOT), Chennai for a similar exercise at Ennore creek and coastal
The task involved in determining the Waste Assimilation Capacity is selection of
a hydrodynamic and water quality models, collection of 2 season data to calibrate the
model and third season data to evaluate the model. The scenarios on Waste
Assimilation Capacity will be generated after its validation and the final recommendation
on the determination of waste load based on the waste assimilation capacity in these
areas will be given to the users.
To assess the existing load of pollutants in the area, data relating to the
characteristics of pollutants from all sources have to be collected in detail and load has
to be determined. Such a task for Ennore has been completed in cooperation with Tamil
Nadu Pollution Control Board. Similar task for Tapi estuary is in progress. The choice of
model for determination of Waste Assimilation Capacity for Ennore has been chosen in
consultation with M/s.Limnotech, USA and collection of two season data to calibrate the
model has been completed. The model is under calibration. It is also proposed to
undertake the task on collection of 3rd season data for validating the mode, within the
current year itself. Regarding the Tapi estuary, the task on collection of first season data
and choice of model will be undertaken in the current year after completion of basic data
on source of input of pollutants.
5.3.3 Development of Guidelines for Environmental Impact Assessment for Coastal
Under this project, it is proposed to develop guidelines for conducting EIA studies
for coastal related activities like construction of ports, harbours and breakwaters, waste
disposal from domestic and industrial wastes, marine transportation and coastal tourism.
The guidelines will bring out in detail about the various tasks, which will have to be
performed by the project proponents. National Institute of Ocean Technology, which has
been assigned with the task of development of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)
guidelines for ports and harbours has completed the initial draft which was peer
reviewed. Based on the comments given by the experts, the draft is under revision. The
final version of the draft is expected to be available by March 2000. Based on the work
done by NIOT, a decision relating to development of EIA guidelines for other sectors,
namely waste disposal, marine transportation and tourism will be taken.
5.3.4 Preparation of Model Integrated Coastal and Marine Area Management Plans for
Chennai, Goa and Gulf of Kachchh
In order to introduce the concept of ICMAM Plan in India, it is necessary to have
expertise in various aspects relating to development of ICMAM Plans. These aspects
include, application of modern tools and techniques like computer based modelling
predicting the inter-impact of various activities prevailing along the coastal areas. Since
development of such models involve advanced computer techniques, it is proposed to
engage the services of a Foreign Consultant. As per the decision made in the past, the
Foreign Consultant will develop the ICMAM Plan for Chennai by closely involving DOD-
ICMAM Project Directorate (DIPD). Based on the knowledge gained, DIPD will develop
the ICMAM Plan for Goa and Gulf of Kachchh. The engagement of Consultant is being
delayed due to want of final clearance from the Govt. of India. Meanwhile, several
preparatory works to initiate the task relating to development of ICMAM Plan for Goa
and Gulf of Kachchh have been made. These mainly include workshops organised to
identify the key issues and problems prevailing in both the areas. The workshop on
ICMAM Plan for Goa has identified mining, sediment transport, waste disposal and
impact due to tourism as some of the major issues to be addressed in the ICMAM Plan.
Regarding Gulf of Kachchh, the workshop identified oil spill threats, sediment transport,
degradation of ecology as some of the major issues to be dealt in the ICMAM Plan. As
advised by the Technical Advisory Committee, the DIPD is in the process of identifying a
suitable institutions/firms to work as consultants to carry out the tasks required for
investigating these problems.
5.3.5 Infrastructure, Training, R&D and Survey
Under this component, infrastructure facilities in the form of a building is being
created to house a long term training programme for utilising the capacity built under the
Capacity Building programme. The training will be provided to the coastal states in the
development of ICMAM Plans and use of GIS in the management of critical habitats.
R&D activities like determination of Use Classification for coastal waters and
determination of No Impact Zone in critical habitats such as mangroves, lagoons etc., as
a part of the pre-requisites for adoption of ICMAM are proposed to be carried out.
During the year, the task relating to collection of basic information and data at the
secondary and primary level for Determination of Use Classification and No Impact Zone
have been initiated. The National Institute of Oceanography is engaged in the collection
of data and information relating to nearly 11 priority locations to determine use
classification. The Andhra University, Visakhapatnam and Institute for Ocean
Management, Anna University, Chennai have initiated the task of collection of data for
Determination of No Impact Zone for Coringa and Pulicat lake respectively.
The civil work for the training facility has been completed. The audio-visual and
computer links required for the training programme are being worked out. The execution
of the design is expected to be initiated at the end of the current year. Similar task for
instrumentation and ecotoxicology laboratories are also being carried out.