6.3 Integrated Coastal and Marine Area Management (ICMAM)

The Department has taken up an infrastructure development and capacity building programme to facilitate adoption of the concept of ICMAM in the coming years. The programme focusses on development of expertise in ICMAM oriented activities and dissemination of knowledge gained to the users like coastal States through organised training programmes. Towards accomplishing these objectives, the following priority activities are being undertaken:

Capacity Building

This component is funded by the World Bank in the form of a International Development Association (IDA) credit under the project "Environment Management Capacity Building" which is co- ordained by the Ministry of Environment and Forests. The Capacity building activities are being carried in the following areas:

Development of GIS based information system for critical habitats containing all information necessary to prepare management plans.

Determination of waste load allocation based on waste assimilation characteristics of selected estuaries (Tapi estuary , Ennore creek,coastal waters).

Development of EIA guidelines for major coastal developmental activities and processes.

Development of model ICMAM plans for Chennai, Goa and Gulf of Kutchch.

The details of activities carried out during the year 1998-99 under the above projects are given below:

A. Development of GIS based information system for critical habitats.

A major activity envisaged under the project include, demonstration of use of GIS as a Decision Support System (DSS) in the management of critical habitats like mangroves, coral reefs, areas rich in bio-diversity, etc. The tasks involved are collection of data and information in the 11 critical habitats namely, Gulf of Khambat, Gulf of Kutchch, Malvan, 5 islands off Karwar, 3 islands off Kochi, Gulf of Mannar, Pitchavaram, Coringa mangrove, Gahirmata, Sunderbans and Kadamat (Lakshadweep) and designing of a database for integration in the GIS software like ARC INFO and ARC VIEW. The data and information are collected for each habitat by the following institutions:

	  S.No    Name of the Habitat             Name of the Institution

1. Gulf of Kutch Gujarat Ecology Commission, Gujarat 2. Gulf of Khambat Gujarat Ecology Commission, Gujarat 3. Malvan National Institute of Oceanography, Goa 4. Five Islands off Karwar Mangalore University, Mangalore 5. Three Islands Off Cochin Cochin University of Science & Technology, Cochin. 6. GULF OF MANNAR Benthic Fauna Marine Biological Station, Zoological Survey of India, Chennai Ornamental Fishes Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai Chemical Parameters Central Electro-Chemicals Research Institute, Tuticorin Microbiological Parameters Centre for Advanced Studies in Marine Biology, Annamalai University, Parangipettai. 7. Pitchavaram Mangroves Centre for Advanced Studies in Marine Biology, Annamalai University, Parangipettai. 8. Coringa mangrove Andhra University, Visakhapatnam 9. Gahirmata Regional Research Laboratory (Bhubaneswar) 10. Sunderbans Central Pollution Control Board, Calcutta 11. Kadamat (Lakshadweep) National Institute of Oceanography, Goa

The database for 3 habitats along with theme maps for these habitats will be developed by Institute for Ocean Management, Anna University. The final product of GIS for each habitat will be developed by the ICMAM - Project Directorate, Chennai.

The data and information for 11 habitats will be collected in 3 seasons. Collection of data for 2 seasons have already been completed for these habitats. The initial design of a database is also in progress. It is expected that the first set of GIS for Pitchavaram mangroves as a model design for other areas will be completed by the end of April 1999.

B. Determination of Waste Assimilation Capacity in Ennore Creek and Coastal waters and Tapi estuary

In order to take measures for control of marine pollution from the land based activities, it is necessary to know the information relating to assimilation capacity of coastal waters. This will help in deciding the amount of pollutants that could be permitted to be discharged in the coastal waters. Such a method is adopted in countries like USA. In order to apply this concept in pollution control measures in India, a capacity building exercise on Determination of Waste Assimilation Capacity (WAC) is proposed to be undertaken. The task of Determination of WAC will be carried out for Tapi estuary and Ennore creek and coastal waters as model areas. Such a task is being attempted for the first time. Therefore technical advice and assistance will be taken from M/s. Limno-Tech, USA who will determine the WAC for Tapi estuary (Gujarat) and advise National Institute of Ocean Technology (NIOT), Chennai for a similar exercise at Ennore creek and coastal waters.

A detailed workplan to execute the activities is being prepared. The field exercises have commenced from Feb. '99 in Ennore creek and coastal waters.

C. Development of guidelines for Environmental Impact Assessment for coastal projects

Under this project, it is proposed to develop guidelines for conducting EIA studies for coastal related activities like construction of ports, harbours and breakwaters, waste disposal from domestic and industrial wastes, marine transportation and coastal tourism. The guidelines will bring out in detail the various tasks, which will have to be performed by the project proponents. NIOT which has expertise in the areas of construction of ports and harbours has already initiated the task relating to development of Environmental Impact Assessment guidelines for this sector. Based on the outcome, guidelines for other sectors will be developed.

D. Preparation of Model Integrated Coastal and Marine Area Management Plans for Chennai, Goa and Gulf of Kutch.

In order to introduce the concept of ICMAM Plan in India, it is necessary to have expertise in various aspects relating to development of ICMAM Plans. These aspects include application of modern tools and techniques like computer based modelling that predict the impact of various inter-related activities occurring in the coastal areas. Since development of such models involve advanced computer techniques, it is proposed to engage the services of M/s. Resource Analysis, Netherlands. While training the personnel in the ICMAM-Project Directorate for usage of such techniques, the firm in association with Indian Institute of Technology, Chennai will develop a model ICMAM Plan using this technique for Chennai (Pulicat lake to Mahabalipuram). With this training, the ICMAM-Project Directorate will develop model ICMAM plans for tourism rich areas like Goa and Large Marine Ecosystem like Gulf of Kutchch. The preparatory work for preparation of plans for all these coastal zones has been initiated.

Infrastructure, Training, R&D and Survey

Under this component, infrastructure facilities are created to house a long term training programme for utilising the capacity built under the Capacity Building programme. The training will be provided to the coastal States in the development of ICMAM Plans and use of GIS in the management of critical habitats. R&D activities like determination of Use Classification for coastal waters and limits of acceptable changes in critical habitats like mangroves, lagoons, etc., as a part of the prerequisite needed for adoption of ICMAM, are also being carried out.